Computer Science
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 Biogass emission prognosis at the landfills
作者  Bicheldey, T.K. & Latushkina, E.
作者单位  
期刊  International Journal of Environment Science and Technology 卷期  Vol. 7, No. 4, 2010 时间  2011.01.17
关键词  Air pollution; Atmosphere; Carbon dioxide; Methane; Solid waste
摘要   The present study aims to estimate biogas potential of two Russian landfills situated in the republic of Tatarstan and in Moscow Region. Due to environmental, economic, social and energetic consideration of biogas for human being, utilization of such a by-product would be of high concern. To date, there are seven biogas utilization projects which have been developed and implemented at municipal solid waste landfills of Russia. The purpose of the research was to determine the biogas potential at the closed landfills. During the studies held in 2008; sampling, transportation, storage of biogas and landfill soil samples, laboratory investigations; physicochemical and analytical methods for measuring of proteins, carbohydrates and fats in the organic part of the soil and the analysis of empirical data by the methods of computer modeling and mathematical statistics were carried out. The obtained results of the research; concentrations of biogas components: methane, carbon dioxide, carbon oxide, nitrogen, hydrogen and oxygen, gas flows, composition of the organic part of the fields and analysis of gas distribution on the surface of the landfills; has shown scientific and practical importance. Results could be used for the assessment of biogas potential at the landfills for further biogas utilization projects implementation with electrical or thermal energy production.
 Computer Simulation System of Stretch Reducing Mill
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作者单位  
期刊  Acta Metallurgica Sinica(English Letters) 卷期  2007, 20(6 时间  2011.01.10
关键词  simulation,tube,stretch reducing mill (SRM),
摘要  
 APPLICATION OF COMPUTER GRAPHICS IN MARTENSITIC TRANSFORMATION
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作者单位  
期刊  Acta Metallurgica Sinica(English Letters) 卷期  1994, 7(2 时间  2011.01.10
关键词  stereograpllic projection, martensitic transformation, computer graphics,
摘要  
 Community Awareness and Preferences on Health Financing Options: The Case of Songea Rural District,
作者  Hussein, Asia K;Mlangwa, MN & Hussein, KN
作者单位  
期刊  East African Journal of Public Health 卷期  Vol. 2, No. 2, 2005 时间  2010.12.20
关键词  Health care financing, community awareness, community preferences, Tanzania
摘要   Objectives:The objectives of this study were to assess community awareness and preferences on the alternative health financing mechanisms that have been introduced in the district. Design:A cross sectional, household survey Setting:Songea Rural District, Ruvuma Region South Western Tanzania Methods:Multistage random sampling procedure was used to select 6 villages that were included in the study. A total of 622 heads of households or their representatives were interviewed using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Computer data entry and analysis were done using EPI Info version 6.0 software programme. Results:Community awareness on the Community Health Fund (CHF) and User Fees were high i.e. 94.9% and 93.2% respectively, while awareness on National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) was relatively low at 34.6%. Most of the respondents used User Fees (81.4%) in financing their health care consumption and it was also the most preferred health financing mechanism (38.4%) followed by CHF (30.5%), however almost a fifth of the respondents, the majority of whom were peasants (95.0%) preferred getting "free care". Recommendations:Study recommendations include increasing community awareness on NHIS and ensuring proper identification of individuals who should be given fee waivers/ exemptions.
 Epidemiology of Measles in Tanzania: A Hospital-Based Survey of Measles Morbidity and Mortality
作者  Mnyika, Kagoma S & Akim, Caroline
作者单位  
期刊  East African Journal of Public Health 卷期  Vol. 2, No. 2, 2005 时间  2010.12.20
关键词  
摘要   Objective:To estimate measles morbidity and mortality in selected regions on mainland Tanzania Design:Cross-sectional study Setting:Hospital-based review of existing records on measles morbidity and mortality in the selected district hospitals on mainland Tanzania. Methods:Review of records on measles morbidity and mortality was performed using a standard instrument adopted from the Ministry of Health. The instrument was pre-tested before use. Researchers were recruited from the Muhimbili University College of Health Sciences and were trained on how to collect data from the hospital records. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Ministry of Health in Dar es Salaam. Upon arrival in the respective regions, the researchers recruited and trained local research assistants on methods of data collection. Completed questionnaire forms were entered into a computer and data cleaning was done before data analysis. Results:Measles was found to occur in individuals of over 15 years of age and beyond. Overall 35% (N=2277) of all measles cases were reported from the Iringa region while Mara region had the lowest number of cases. On the other hand Shinyanga had the highest case fatality rate (6%) compared with other regions. Mortality was higher in children below two years of age and among individuals who had no history of measles vaccination. Conclusion:We conclude that despite high measles vaccination coverage, measles is still a public health problem in Tanzania. Efforts should be made to give several booster doses up to the age of 15 years.
 A Stepwise Regression Analysis on Under-five Diarrhoael Morbidity Prevalence in Nekemte Town, Wester
作者  Eshete, Wondwossen Birke
作者单位  
期刊  East African Journal of Public Health 卷期  Vol. 5, No. 3, 2008 时间  2010.11.20
关键词  Diarrhoea morbidity, Maternal care giving behaviors, Hygiene behaviors, Prevalence, and Under-five children
摘要   Objective:Various studies have addressed the relationship between maternal care giving behaviours including hygiene behaviours and the occurrence of diarrhoea in children. However, very few studies have done in Ethiopia in general and none exist in Nekemte town, western Ethiopia. Therefore, the present study aimed to estimate the prevalence of under-five diarrhoea morbidity in relation to mothers/care takers behaviours including hygiene behavioural determinants. Methods:Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Nekemte town, western Ethiopia from October 15- November 26, 2007. 477 mothers/ care takers of index under-five children living in the households selected randomly from sub cities in the town formed the study population. Structured and pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect data. The data were entered into a computer, edited and analyzed using SPSS for windows version 12.01. Stepwise logistic regression model was used to calculate the Odds ratios and 95% confidence interval for the different risk factors was considered. Results:From 477, 461 were participated in the study giving a response rate of 96.6%. The mean ages of the respondents and the index children were about 32.4 (+8.8 SD) years and 25.27(+15.16 SD) months respectively. Diarrhoea morbidity prevalence over a period of two weeks preceding the study was about 28.9%. Although several maternal cares giving and hygiene-related risk factors showed significant association with diarrhoea morbidity on bivariate analysis, the use of cover material during drinking water transportation, faeces seen around the pit-hole and bottle feeding were the only significant variables on multivariate analysis. Conclusion:As diarrhoea morbidity was major problem among under-five children in Nekemte town, appropriate intervention programmes should be formulated focused on identified risk factors.
 KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND ACCEPTABILITY OF SPERMICIDAL CONTRACEPTION AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN DAR
作者  Mwambete, Kennedy D. & Mogasa, C.
作者单位  
期刊  East African Journal of Public Health 卷期  Vol. 4, No. 1, 2007 时间  2010.11.20
关键词  knowledge, attitude, acceptability, spermicides/microbicides and contraception
摘要   Objectives:The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, acceptability and attitude towards the use of spermicides among students of University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM). Methodology:This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted over four-month period among UDSM students. A random sample of students was recruited from all three university campus namely University College of Land and Architectural Studies (UCLAS), Muhimbili University College of Health Sciences (MUCHS) and Mlimani Campus (MC). Questionnaires with both closed and open end-questions were used for data collection in which knowledge, attitude, and acceptability of spermicides were determined. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS/PC+ version 10.0, 1999 computer package. Results:A total of 300 students participated in this study, out of which 154 (51.3%) were females and 146 (48.7%) males. Majority of the students 276 (92%) had poor knowledge of spermicidal products, and out of these, 146 (53%) were absolutely unable to describe the use of spermicides. Ninety-three percent of the students had never used spermicides. Of those who had never used spermicides, 84 (30%) said because they used other contraceptive means, 50 (17.8%) said they are expensive, 29 (10.3%) attributed this to unavailability of the products, 3(1.1%) to fear of "contracting" cancer and 13(4.6%) to the unreliability. Furthermore, a few who had used them didn’t trust the products as ideal means of contraception. Conclusion:The respondents had poor knowledge of spermicides. Spermicides were not accepted by the students because of the presumed side-effects, being very expensive and unreliable for contraception purpose. However, the respondents accepted spermicides usage as an ideal alternative to condom and effective means for a female-controlled method to prevent/reduce unwanted pregnancy and HIV risk. The study recommends that the Government/responsible authorities should encourage spermicides usage, particularly when coupled with microbicides, in reduction of unplanned pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and HIV infection inclusive.
 Role of Governmental and Non-Governmental Organizations in Mitigation of Stigma and Discrimination A
作者  Odindo, Margaret A. & Mwanthi, Mutuku A.
作者单位  
期刊  East African Journal of Public Health 卷期  Vol. 5, No. 1, 2008 时间  2010.09.20
关键词  Government, non-governmental organizations, stigma and discrimination, HIV/AIDS, Persons Living with HIV/AIDS.
摘要   Objective:This study assessed the role of governmental and non-governmental organizations in mitigation of stigma and discrimination among people infected and affected by HIV/AIDS in informal settlements of Kibera. Methods:This was a descriptive cross-sectional study and used a multi stage stratified sampling method. The study was conducted in Kibera, an informal settlement with a population of over one million people which makes it the largest slum not only in Kenya but in sub-Saharan Africa. The study targeted infected individuals, non-infected community members, managers of the organizations implementing HIV/AIDS programmes and service providers. In the process 1331 households were interviewed using qualitative and quantitative data collection instruments. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Nudist 4 packages were used to analyze the quantitative and qualitative data respectively. Results:More than 61% of the respondents had patients in their households. Fifty five percent (55%) of the households received assistance from governmental and non-governmental organizations in taking care of the sick. Services provided included awareness, outreach, counseling, testing, treatment, advocacy, home based care, assistance to the orphans and legal issues. About 90% of the respondents perceived health education, counseling services and formation of post counseling support groups to combat stigma and discrimination to be helpful. Conclusion:Stigma and discrimination affects the rights of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). Such stigmatization and discrimination goes beyond and affects those who care for the PLWHAs, and remains the biggest impediment in the fight against HIV/AIDS in Kibera. Governmental and non-governmental organizations continue to provide key services in the mitigation of stigma and discrimination in Kibera. However, personal testimonies by PLWHAs showed that HIV positive persons still suffer from stigma and discrimination. Approximately 43% of the study population experienced stigma and discrimination.
 Paediatric Cancers at Butare University Teaching Hospital in Rwanda.
作者  Makanga, M.;Ayinkamiye, M.A.;Ngendahayo, L. & Kakande, I.
作者单位  
期刊  East and Central African Journal of Surgery 卷期  Vol. 13, No. 1, 2008 时间  2010.08.23
关键词  
摘要   Background:Cancer is an important cause of mortality in many of the economically developed nations of the world. More than 10% of all deaths in children below 15 years of age are caused by malignant diseases in developed countries. In the developing world, childhood cancers are yet to be recognized as a major pediatric illness due to several other competing causes of death like diarrheal illness and respiratory illness. Methods:A descriptive retrospective study of children admitted for cancer in Butare Teaching Hospital over a 7 years period (January 1999-December 2005) was carried out The study population included 36 children aged 0-15 years admitted with cancer at Butare university teaching Hospital. Data was analyzed using Epi data, SPSS11,5 computer programs. Results:The average age of our patients was 5.9 years with the youngest patient being 5 month old. The peak incidence of cancer was found in the 0-5 years age group and accounted for 21 patients (58, 3%). The Male to Female sex ratio was 1.7: 1. The most common types of cancer were: Burkett’s lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma and Hodgkin’s Lymphoma. Treatment included surgery for 17 patients(47.2%), chemotherapy for 4 patients (11.1%), surgery combined with post-operative chemotherapy for 1 patient (2.7%), the association of pre-operative chemotherapy + surgery + post-operative chemotherapy for 1 patient (2.7%) and palliative care for 13 patients (36.1%). The average length of hospital stay was 36.6 days ranging from 2 to 510 days.The hospital mortality rate was 27.7%. Recommendation:The creation of an oncology department and a National cancer Register are recommended.
 Childhood Bone and Soft Tissue Tumours: A review of 43 Treated at two University Teaching Hospitals
作者  Makanga, M.;Majyambere, J.P. & Kakande, I.
作者单位  
期刊  East and Central African Journal of Surgery 卷期  Vol. 13, No. 1, 2008 时间  2010.08.23
关键词  
摘要   Back ground:Cancer represents one of the major causes of death in the world estimated at 1 out of 10 deaths. Globally, 160,000 children are diagnosed to have cancer each year. In the developing countries, one child out of two with cancer will die because of this disease mostly because they present with advanced disease or due to limited resources for proper management1,2. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence, the histological types and the management outcome of childhood bone and soft tissue tumours in Rwanda Methods:A retrospective descriptive study of 43 histologically confirmed cases of bone and soft tissue tumours in children was done in the Surgery Departments of University Teaching Hospitals (CHUB and CHUK). The period of study was 6 years from January 2001 to December 2006. Only children aged 16 years or below were included in the study. Data was obtained from patient’s clinical files, pathology register and theatre registers. Information obtained was recorded using a special questionnaire; Data obtained was analyzed using Epidata 2.1b, SPSS 11.5 computer programs. Statistic test Pearson Chi-carré (P) was considered significant if P value was less than or equal to 0.05. Results:During 6 years period, 43 children aged 2 to 16 years were seen having bone and soft tissue tumours. Males accounted for 28 (65.1%) of the cases. The 10 to 16 year age group was predominantly affected, accounting for 72% (n=31) of all cases.. Pain and swelling were the main clinical signs in 100%of cases. Tumours were benign in 17 (40%) and malignant in 26 (60%) of cases. History of local trauma and pain was associated with malignant bone tumours (P=0.003 and P=0.000), respectively (n=23). Delay time between the onset of symptoms and consultation to hospitals was associated with death for malignant tumours (P=0.049). The bones were affected in 76.7% (n=33), being malignant in 23 (69.7%)of them. The hospital mortality rate was 18% for malignant tumours. Pulmonary and bone spread of the disease were observed in all fatal cases. Conclusion:Limitation of diagnostic and therapeutic means and lack of an oncology department that would provide chemotherapy and radiotherapy) in our University teaching hospitals (CHUB and CHUK) made the management of malignant tumours and the follow up after discharge inadequate, unsuitable and difficult.
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