Economics Management Science
关键词: 检索项: 二级学科:
 
排列规则 出版时间倒序 出版时间顺序 引用次数 期刊影响因子
 
 Willingness to Pay for 'Olyset' Bednets Among Formal Employees and Rural Peasants in Korogwe and Muh
作者  Mubyazi, Godfrey M.;Barongo, Vivien;Mdira, Kassembe & Njunwa, Kato J.
作者单位  
期刊  East African Journal of Public Health 卷期  Vol. 1, No. 1, 2004 时间  2011.01.01
关键词  Willingness to pay, insecticide-treated nets, poverty, malaria, Tanzania
摘要   Owing to their impact on reducing mosquito nuisance, morbidity and mortality due to malaria, insecticide treated bednets are promoted to be used at household level and in schools, military camps, health facility wards, and guest houses. Nevertheless, the large-scale use of such materials is constrained by demand and supply factors. The contemporary debate is that people might be willing to pay for bednets but their short supply could constrain their actual use. Also it is concerned that supplying bednets in the market is one thing but whether people are prepared to purchase them is another thing since the actual uptake of bednets is determined by personal or household's disposable income, and their prices, their shapes and sizes as well as people's attitudes. This paper reports on a study of willingness to pay (WTP) for Olyset bednets among formal employees and villagers predominantly engaged in subsistence farming in Korogwe and Muheza districts in Tanzania. Generally, the study found that, fixing a price of Tshs. 3,500 or more per one bednet to be paid at once is practically undesirable to many peasants even if the majority of them might have had stated their WTP that price. On the other hand, allowing prepayments or payments by instalments has the advantage of promoting sales and utilization of bednets among formal and informal employees. The study recommends demand creation mechanisms like social marketing towards changing public perceptions and attitudes for better utilization of bednets.
 Cassava Processors’ Awareness of Occupational and Environmental Hazards Associated with Cassava Pr
作者  Oyegbami, A.;Oboh, G. & Omueti, O.
作者单位  
期刊  African Journal of Food Agriculturen Nutrition and Development 卷期  Vol. 10, No. 2, 2010 时间  2010.07.19
关键词  Cassava-processors, awareness, hazard, processing, Nigeria
摘要   The processing of this popular root tuber into different products (gari, fufu, pupuru) is not without hazards both to the environment, the processors, and even the consumers. This study, therefore, investigated cassava processors’ awareness of occupational and environmental hazards associated with and factors affecting cassava processing in three states - Oyo, Ogun and Ondo in South-western Nigeria. A total of 380 cassava processors were purposively and randomly selected from the three states. Data were collected through the use of structured interview guide using the participatory and focus group approach with the assistance of experienced enumerators. The data were analysed using frequency counts and percentages. Results from the study showed that majority (68.9%) of the respondents involved in cassava processing were females, 65.7% are between the ages of 31-50 years which means that they were still in their active age, 48% have between 4-6 persons as household size, 64.2% had one form of education or another which is a good indicator of their level of understanding especially where a technology involves a little technicality. Another 55.5% of the respondents took cassava processing and marketing as their primary occupation. A larger percentage (74.5%) of the respondents indicated that the Agricultural Development Programme (ADP) is their source of information. The result also showed that processor’s awareness of occupational hazards associated with the different stages of cassava processing vary because their involvement in these stages also varies. They were also aware of environmental hazards associated with cassava processing. Majority (97.7%) of the respondents combined conventional and modern methods of cassava processing. Majority of the respondents also complained of lack of water (78.4%), lack of effective channel for cassava effluent (64.5%), lack of labour (80.3%) and unstable price of cassava products (70.3%) as major factors affecting cassava processing in the study area. It is, therefore, recommended that for proper channeling be made for cassava effluent, cassava peels should be sun-dried and used as livestock feed, government and the community should provide a borehole or a deep well as this will improve cleanliness of the environment cassava products. Key stakeholders can also participate in the design of processing site from inception so as to reduce the problems faced by cassava processors during processing.
 Processed Products of Termites and Lake Flies: Improving Entomophagy for Food Security within the La
作者  Ayieko, M. A.;Oriaro, V. & Nyambuga, I. A.
作者单位  
期刊  African Journal of Food Agriculturen Nutrition and Development 卷期  Vol. 10, No. 2, 2010 时间  2010.07.19
关键词  Entomophagy, termites, lakeflies, edible insects
摘要   Among the factors contributing to food shortage in Africa are lack of appropriate preservation and storage facilities, tropical heat and poor road network for marketing produce. High food spoilage caused by high temperatures of the tropical areas necessitates storage for all householders. Marginal areas of Lake Victoria often suffer protein deficiency due to dependence on narrow base sources of protein, most of which get spoilt during storage. The lake region is endowed with plenty of edible insects. Edible insects can provide partial solution to food insecurity. The aim of this project was to promote entomophagy for food security by adding value to termites and lake flies, enhancing taste and preference of edible insects, and improving shelf life of edible insect products in marginal areas with food insecurity. Two specific objectives examined were to add value by processing termites and lake flies into readily acceptable consumer products; and to test acceptability of processed products of termites and lake flies across different audiences. Samples of termites and lake flies were collected and processed in the laboratory under different types of cooking methods such as baking, boiling and steam cooking under pressure. The processed products included crackers, muffins, sausages and meat loaf. The products were tested among convenient sampled respondents. Processing the products added value based on organoleptic tests and minimized the fear of eating insects among many people. Not only marginal areas with limited protein foods but all areas with these insects can improve their food situation by value adding to these available resources. Mostly, people are familiar with these insects, therefore, the processed products of lake flies and termites were readily accepted, which could make their commercialization easier. It was concluded that processing edible insects into conventional consumer products encourages entomophagy and has potential for income generation and food security within the lake region.
 Impact of low nutrient intake on infant mortality rate in sub-saharan Africa
作者  Ijaiya, GT & Yahaya, AA
作者单位  
期刊  African Journal of Food Agriculturen Nutrition and Development 卷期  Vol. 8, No. 4, 2008 时间  2010.06.25
关键词  Food, nutrient, infant, mortality, Africa
摘要   Eating good quality food is necessary for good health given the importance of food to the people as one of their most basic needs, which they cannot live without, because it gives energy for everything they do (walking, working, talking, playing, reading and even thinking and breathing). Food also provides the energy for the nerves, muscles, heats and glands to work; and the nourishing substances the bodies require to build and repair tissues and regulate the body organs and systems. Given these assertions, a healthy body through adequate nutrient intake will not only affect the capacity of an individual to learn, but will improve the well-being and the productivity of that individual and the economic growth of the nation in general. Adequate nutrient intake will not only reduce the tendency for individuals to contact communicable diseases like tuberculosis, but if not properly managed can increase diseases of dietary excess like obesity. On the contrary, when there are inadequate intakes of nutrients, the resultant effect will include malnutrition, which in turn could lead to impaired mental development, poor scholastic and intellectual performance and a wide range of illnesses, disability and possibly death, most especially among infants. Using a cross-country data, drawn from sub-Saharan Africa and a multiple regression analysis, this paper examines the extent to which low nutrient intake has impacted on infant mortality rate in sub-Saharan Africa. The results obtained first indicate that the model used for the study is of good fit, since 61 percent variation in the dependent variable (infant mortality rate) is explained by the independent variables (low nutrient intake, proxied by dailyper capitacalories intake andper capitaincome). Second, the result also indicates that low nutrient intake has a significant influence on infant mortality rate and third nutrient intake (drawn from the values of the co-efficient and t-value) has the expected sign, which is inversely related to infant mortality rate, thus fulfilling oura-prioriexpectation which said that the lower the nutrient intake, the more the rate of infant mortality rate in sub-Saharan Africa. Given these result, measures such as, increase in food availability, macro-economic stability (especially, a reduction in inflation rate and exchange rate stability), improved nutrition through micro-nutrients fortification and supplementation, ensuring good governance and combating ethnic/religious/ civil conflicts and HIV/AIDS are suggested as possible solutions to improving nutrient intake in sub-Saharan Africa.
 Factors Likely To Enhance Mycotoxin Introduction Into The Human Diet Through Maize In Kenya
作者  Moturi, Wilkister K. Nyaora
作者单位  
期刊  African Journal of Food Agriculturen Nutrition and Development 卷期  Vol. 8, No. 3, 2008 时间  2010.06.10
关键词  diet, factors, hepatitis, maize, mycotoxins.
摘要   Moulds probably contaminate and spoil more foods than any other groups of microorganisms. They render contaminated food not only unpalatable, but also unsafe for consumption by producing toxins. In Kenya, several incidences of acute food poisoning due to mycotoxins have occurred, and especially through the staple food, maize. Chronic exposure to mycotoxins has been linked to liver cancer, hepatitis infections, impaired immunity and stunted growth in children. Several factors may enhance the occurrence of mycotoxin in the human diet in Kenya. These include eating habits, existing marketing problems which encourage long storage periods; the pre and post harvest practices that encourage build up of moisture and thus encourage mould growth; lack of preparedness in handling the large quantities of maize produced due to the success of hybrid maize technology, ignorance and poverty. This is aggravated by the fact that there are no strict regulations that impose limits on the concentration of mycotoxins in maize that is marketed in the country as well as lack of relevant technology required in monitoring fungi and mycotoxins in the grains. Mechanisms put in place to deal with such situations can be successful, only if the several factors that contribute towards this situation are well understood. The paper discusses these factors and gives some recommendations for action and further research. The recommendations include coming up with agronomic practices that discourage mould growth; improved pre and post harvest practices; nutritional education and induction of behavioural change as regards food habits; efficient and functioning systems of marketing and pricing of domestically consumed maize, especially within the East African Community; research to identify factors leading to S-strain dominance in semi-arid regions of Kenya; identification of non toxic strains that are highly effective against the S-strain; research on how malnutrition aggravates aflatoxicosis and use of additives and other methods for rendering poor quality grain safe for consumption.
 Commercialization Of Ruspolia nitidula (nsenene Grasshoppers) In Central Uganda
作者  Agea, Jacob Godfrey;Biryomumaisho, Dickson;Buyinza, Mukadasi & Nabanoga, Gorettie Nsubuga
作者单位  
期刊  African Journal of Food Agriculturen Nutrition and Development 卷期  Vol. 8, No. 3, 2008 时间  2010.06.10
关键词  Marketing, Trade, Ruspolia nitidula, Uganda.
摘要   Trade inRuspolianitidulacommonly known as grasshopper and locally known, as Nsenene is becoming a valuable source of income for many poor people in central Uganda, which although modest in terms of monetary value, could nonetheless form a significant proportion of their annual income. Though eaten by a large proportion of the population in the central Uganda, there is much less documented information on its commercialization and income potential. A study was, therefore, conducted to document consumers' perceptions about eating theseR. nitidula; marketing chain, market locations, and the people trading inR. nitidula; the average price, income generated and the challenges and opportunities for marketing it in central Uganda. Two divisions (Central and Kawempe) of Kampala City and one sub-county (Nyendo-Ssenyange) of Masaka district with high concentration ofR. nitidulabusiness were surveyed. SeventyR. nitidulatraders and 70 consumers were interviewed. Data were edited, coded, entered and analyzed using Statistical Packake for Social Sciences (SPSS). Results show thatR. nitidulais a delicacy and cultural food eaten by the majority of the people in central Uganda. The average retail price per kilogram ofR. nitidulawas Uganda shillings 5,000 (≈US $2.80), which compares favourably with that of goat meat, which retails at approximately Uganda shillings 4,000 (≈US $2.13) per kilogram in Kampala districts. The trade was dominated by men and characterized by wholesalers who buyR. nitidulafrom collectors and sell to retailers. The average price per kilogram ofR. nitidulaincreases from collectors to wholesale traders and to retailers. Collectors charged the lowest price although their profit margins remained the highest. Several barriers, such as high market dues, hamper the trade inR. nitidula. There is a need to streamline the trade inR. nitidulaso as to protect traders from high taxation by the market administrators. The possibility of adding value to theR. nitidulashould be investigated because it is mainly being sold in fresh form and yet it has a short shelf life.
 Market Survey of Mondia Whytei (Mulondo) Roots in Kampala City, Uganda
作者  Agea, Jacob Godfrey;Katongole, Benard;Waiswa, Daniel & Nabanoga, Goretti Nsubuga
作者单位  
期刊  African Journal of Traditional Complementary and Alternative Medicines 卷期  Vol. 5, No. 4, 2008 时间  2010.06.04
关键词  Mondia whytei, Markets, trade, sexual stimulant, medicinal plants, Uganda
摘要   This study explored the consumers’ and vendors’ perceptions aboutMondiaWhytei roots, in Kampala city, Uganda; determined the marketing margins and the market flow of the roots in the city; documented demand and supply opportunities as well as challenges to marketing of the roots by the vendors. Seventy vendors and 70 consumers of the roots were administered with semi-structured questionnaires. Results showed thatM. whyteiroots are largely perceived as sexual stimulant, appetiser, flavours for food and drinks, and stimulant for milk production in lactating mothers. Majority of the vendors (74%) and consumers (85%) perceived the trade in the roots as worthwhile. Men and adolescent boys were reported to be the main consumers. Retailers who buy the roots directly from collectors and later sell to consumers dominate the trade. The average price charged per piece and a kilogram of roots increases from collectors, middlemen and to the retailers. The average retail price was US $ 0.12 per piece of the root and US $ 1.50 per kg of the roots. Collectors charged the lowest price (US $ 0.06 and US $ 0.60 per piece and a kilogram of the roots respectively) though their profit margins remained the highest (50%). Several demand and supply opportunities exist forM. whyteiroots and these included few sexual stimulant accepted alternatives toM. whyteiroots in Kampala city; consumers’ willingness to pay high prices when the roots are scarce, and a large number ofM. whyteiroots gatherers that could promote the cultivation of this plant for the market. Challenges, such as seasonal low supply of the roots, and unorganised market structure, hamper the trade inM. whyteiroots. There is a need for experimental research on efficacies of the perceived uses of the roots reported in this study. The possibility of value addition to the roots sold should be investigated.
 Determinants of Food Security Status of Rural Households Living With HIV/AIDS in Southwestern Nigeri
作者  Adenegan, K.O. & Adewusi O.A.
作者单位  
期刊  African Journal of Biomedical Research 卷期  Vol. 10, No. 1, 2007 时间  2010.05.24
关键词  Food security, Rural household, HIV/AIDS, Southwestern Nigeria
摘要   The study assessed the determinants of food security status of households living with HIV/AIDS in Southwestern Nigeria. Eighty-five people living with HIV/AIDS were interviewed for the study. Descriptive statistics, cost of calorie measure and the Logit model were used in analyzing the data collected. The result shows that there is high prevalence of food insecurity among the households living with HIV/AIDS. The result of the Logit model also shows that gender, education, monthly food intake (Kcal), total monthly income, drug share and food share significantly influence the food security status of the households living with HIV/AIDS. To improve the food security status of households living with HIV/AIDS, it is recommended that economic policy should be directed towards the reduction of the food prices, thus reducing the food share of the household monthly expenditure
 Opportunities for Increased Production, Utilization and Income Generation from African Leafy Vegetab
作者  Nguni, Dickson & Mwila, Godfrey
作者单位  
期刊  African Journal of Food Agriculturen Nutrition and Development 卷期  7 时间  2010.04.28
关键词  Amaranths, Cleome, Okra, Cucurbits.
摘要   In order to promote the production and marketing of African Leafy Vegetables (ALVs) and help realize their potential as sources of food and income, a case study was undertaken under the IPGRI programme on ALVs. The study was aimed at determining the priority ALVs and assessing their status in terms of genetic diversity, production, processing and marketing through a household survey. Three communities of Hoffmeyer, Subcentre and Chikumbi in Nyimba, Siavonga and Chibombo districts respectively were covered. Information was gathered from 280 households across the communities through participatory rural appraisal using guided household interviews and focused group discussions.Amaranthusspp. Wild spinach (English) Bboonko (Tonga), Libondwe (Lenje), Bondwe (Nyanja);CleomegynandraCat's whiskers, spiderplant (English), Shungwa/ Luyuni-yuni (Tonga), Lubanga (Lenje), Suntha (Nyanja);Abelmoschusesculentus, Okra (English), Mudelele/ Mutezi (Tonga), Delele/ Mulembwe (Lenje), Delele (Nyanja);Brassicacarinata, Ethiopian Mustard (English) Tanta a chulu/ Chishu chituba (Tonga), Mupilu/ Nchembele (Lenje), Mupilu (Nyanja) andCucurbitaspp., Pumpkin (English) Bboobbo, Lutanga, Muchile (Tonga), Buchisa bwa nyungu (Lenje), Chiwawa, Mthopo (Njanja) were identified as priority ALVs. It was found that within species variability based on morphological markers of the target ALVs was generally low except forAbelmoschusesculentusandCucurbitaspp which had more than three known varieties. Although 63% of households cultivated both ALVs and exotic vegetables, 33% of the households cultivated ALVs while only 4% exclusively grew exotic vegetables. Farm saved seed for all ALVs except Abelmoschus esculentus was used by 81% of households across communities while 10% obtained their seed from neighbours/relatives within their communities. Direct sowing was the commonest planting method while the application of organic manure to the crop was prominent in Subcentre followed by Chikumbi. Application of mineral fertilizers to ALVs was uncommon practice except in Abelmoschus esculentus. It was revealed that the most preserved ALVs wereAbelmoschus esculentusandCucurbitaspp. Open markets and supermarkets in Lusaka sold ALVs such asAbelmoschus esculentus,Amaranthusspp andCucurbitaspp. The main sources of these vegetables in Lusaka were local farmers in the peri-urban areas of the town. A total of 33 different recipes and eleven preservation methods for ALVs were documented across communities while 7 recipes were documented from commercial restaurants. The ALVs play an increasing role in the diets and as source of income for many households and efforts required for stimulating production include improvements in access to improved varieties and availability of urban markets.
 Marketing and commercialization channels of sheep meat products (Ovis aries ) in Lara state, Vene
作者  D'Aubeterre, Ramón;Delgado, Aleyda;Armas, Wilmer J. & Rueda, Mónica
作者单位  
期刊  Zootecnia Tropical 卷期  Vol. 25, No. 3, 2007 时间  2010.04.20
关键词  Marketing channels, commercialization, prices, ovine, farmers.Ovinos, canales de mercadeo, comercialización, precios, productores.
摘要   The main objective of this paper is to identify the different channels of commercialization of the sheep meat product in Lara state, Venezuela. Twelve years of systematic information is presented. This information was taken among sheep farmers, intermediaries, industrials, retailers, consumers, and government agencies. Surveys were applied to the different actors related to the commercialization and marketing of the sheep products. Prices were analyzed at different levels of markets by using the Method of Adjustment of General Prices of the Central Bank of Venezuela. The main detected channels of commercialization for the sheep meat were: 1) Sheep producers-consumers, 2) Sheep producers-intermediaries (carriers)-retailers-consumers, 3) Sheep producers-intermediaries-slaughterhouse-retailers-consumers, and 4) Sheep producers-intermediaries (carriers)-slaughterhouse-butcheries/supermarkets-restaurants-consumers. Also, prices per kilogram of the animals at the farm and for the consumers were determined nominally and both increased during 1989-2006 period, while the reexpression at constant prices showed a decrease during the same period.En este artículo se presentan los diferentes canales de comercialización de la carne ovina del estado Lara. La información es producto de doce años de seguimiento e información sistematizada recabada entre productores, intermediarios, detallistas y consumidores del estado Lara. Se aplicaron encuestas y entrevistas a los diferentes actores relacionados con la comercialización de la carne ovina y se analizó el comportamiento de los precios a diferentes instancias de la cadena de mercadeo, a través del Método de Ajuste por Nivel General de Precios del Banco Central de Venezuela. Según los resultados, los principales canales detectados para la venta de la carne ovina fueron: 1) productor-consumidor, 2) productor-carnicerías/supermercado-consumidor, 3) productor-acopiador-transportista-detallista-consumidor y 4) productor-acopiador transportista-sala de matanza y/o matadero-carnicería/ supermercado-restaurantes-consumidor. También se determinó que los precios del kilo de animal a puerta de corral y a nivel de consumidor expresados nominalmente se incrementaron durante el periodo 1989-2006, mientras que la reexpresión a precios constantes indica una disminución de los mismos.
当前页数:1/总页数:252|首页上一页   下一页 尾页
OPEN ACCESS搜索平台-中国科技论文在线
中国科技论文在线 版权所有
在线首页 | 在线简介 | 服务条款 | 联系我们 | 京ICP备05083805号 | 文保网安备案号:1101080066
主管:中华人民共和国教育部 主办:教育部科技发展中心 技术支持:赛尔网络有限公司