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 Assessing Acceptability of Parents/Guardians of Adolescents Towards Introduction of Sex and Reproduc
作者  Mbonile, Lumuli & Kayombo, Edmund J.
期刊  East African Journal of Public Health 卷期  Vol. 5, No. 1, 2008 时间  2011.01.20
关键词  Tanzania, Sex education, Reproductive health, Parents/guardians, Initiation to adulthood
摘要   Objectives:To assess acceptability of parents/guardians of adolescents towards the introduction of sex and reproductive health education in the community and schools. Methods:A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to get 150 participants for this study. A structured questionnaire was used to interview the sampled participants and was supplemented with guided focus group discussion in Kinondoni Municipality of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Results:The analysis of the findings shows that there is a mixed feeling on the introduction of sex and reproductive health education in schools. Participants strongly supported that they should talk with their adolescents about sexuality and reproductive health (88.6%) but their culture prohibits them from doing so (76.7%). Also supported that condoms could protect against HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections (82%), but strongly opposed the use of condoms to their adolescents because it would encourage promiscuity (78%). When the data were analysed by faith of the religions of the participants, 64% were in favour of introducing sex education and reproductive health, but were opposed to use of condoms to their adolescents. All participants were againstvijiweni, which were recreation centres for the youths because they taught bad manners to their adolescents. The preferred source of information about sex education and reproductive health should be from the parents/guardians (86%), religious leaders (70%), media (62%), health workers (61%) and school teachers (59%). Conclusion:All in all the will of introduction of sex education and reproductive health in the community is there but the approach need to be worked out carefully by taking into account of the cultural and religious factors. Parents/guardians, religious leaders and traditional charismatic leaders should take part in designing the programme and even being involved in teaching it. The other option is to lump together sex education and reproductive health education in science especially in biology which is already in place in Tanzania education programmes.
 Causes, Magnitude and Management of Burns in Under-Fives in District Hospitals in Dar Es Salaam, Tan
作者  Justin-Temu, M.;Rimoy, G.;Premji, Z. & Matemu, G.
期刊  East African Journal of Public Health 卷期  Vol. 5, No. 1, 2008 时间  2011.01.20
关键词  Burns, Under-fives, Cause, Management
摘要   Objectives:To determine the causes, magnitude and management of burns in children under five years of age who were admitted in the district hospitals of Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania. Methods:In this study, a total of 204 under fives were enrolled. Questionnaires were used to elicit if the parent/caretaker had the knowledge of the cause of the burns, what was done immediately after burn injury, first aid given immediately after burn, source of the knowledge of first aid and when the child was taken to the hospital. Also the questionnaire was cited with data on the management of burns in the hospitals through observation and checking the treatment files. Results:Forty nine percent were males while 50.5% were females. Most of the children (54.9%) were aged between 1-2 years. 78.4 % had scalds while 21.6 % had flame burns. No children w ere found to have burns caused by chemicals or electricity. Most of the burns (97.5%) occurred accidentally, although some (2.5%) were intentional. 68.6 % of these burn injuries occurred in the kitchen. Immediately after burn 87.3% of the children had first aid applied on their wounds while 12.7% didn’t apply anything. Of the agents used, honey was the most used (32.8%) followed by cold water (16.7%). The source of knowledge on these agents was from relatives and friends (72.5%), schools (7%), media (6%) and medical personnel (14%). The study further revealed that analgesics, intravenous fluids, antiseptics and antibiotics were the drugs used for treatment of burns in the hospital and that there was no specialized unit for burns in the hospitals. Conclusions: Causes of childhood burns are largely preventable requiring active social/medical education and public enlighten campaigns on the various methods of prevention. The government to see to it that hospitals have specialized units for managing burn cases and also the socio-economic status of its people be improved.
作者  Mboera, Leonard E.G.;Rumisha, Susan. F.;Senkoro, Kesheni P.;Mayala, Benjamin K.;Shayo, Elizabeth H. & Kisinza, WN.
期刊  East African Journal of Public Health 卷期  Vol. 4, No. 1, 2007 时间  2011.01.20
关键词  health, education, messages, education, communication, gaps, Tanzania
摘要   Objective:To explore and identify gaps in knowledge and information communication at all levels of health delivery system in Tanzania. Methods:In-depth interviews and twelve Focus Group Discussions were conducted to capture information on the community knowledge on different health problems and the health information communication process. Interviews and discussions were also held with primary schoolchildren, traditional healers, health facility workers and district health management team members. Documentary review and inventory of the available health education materials at community, health facility and district levels, was made. Results:Major community health and health-related problems included diseases (61.6%), lack of potable water (36.5%), frequent famine (26.9%) and lack of health facility services (25.3%). Malaria, HIV/AIDS and diarrhoeal diseases were the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Most of the health communication packages covered communicable diseases and their prevention. Health care facility was the main (91.6%) source of health information for most communities. Public meetings, radio and print materials were the most frequently used channels of health information communication. Major constraints in adopting health education messages included poverty, inappropriate health education, ignorance and local beliefs. Conclusion:This study has identified gaps in health knowledge and information communication in Tanzania. There is lack of adequate knowledge and information exchange capacities among the health providers and the ability to share that information with the targeted community. Moreover, although the information gets to the community, most of them are not able to utilize it properly because they lack the necessary background knowledge.
作者  Tarimo, DS & Malekela, DA
期刊  East African Journal of Public Health 卷期  Vol. 4, No. 1, 2007 时间  2011.01.20
关键词  Perceptions, Chloroquine, Sulfadoxine / Sulfalene-Pyrimethamine, Artemisinin Combination Therapy, policy change, Tanzania.
摘要   Objective:To describe, from health workers (HWs) perspectives, the potential and actual barriers to the implementation of the first change of policy from chloroquine (CQ) to Sulfadoxine / Sulfalane – Pyrimewthamine (SP) in preparation for the second change of policy to Artemisinin based Combination Therapies (ACTs). Methods:A descriptive cross-sectional survey of HWs using questionnaire interviews was carried out in public and private health facilities in Songea Urban district. The interview concerned awareness and knowledge on the commonly used antimalarial drugs as given in the new policy, focusing on SP use and the associated side effects as well as perceptions on the potency and safety of SP versus CQ and the perceived alternative antimalarial drugs to non-response or reaction to SP. Results:Awareness on the new policy was very high; 91.4% of HWs were aware that SP was the new drug. Although the majority of HWs (81.9%) reported using the new policy as soon as it was out, a significant percentage (76.2%) reported continued use of SP (P-value < 0.001). SP was perceived to have a low potency in that it was slow in fever clearance. A significant percentage (65.7%) of HWs reported a history of problems with SP use namely headaches and skin reactions. Quinine (QN) was significantly frequently mentioned as the perceived alternative drug to CQ (61.1%) and non-response (56.6%) or reaction (54.1%) to SP. Conclusion:Findings show that SP was generally not preferred by HWs, and they continued to use CQ despite the evidence that it was no longer effective indicating that. HWs tend to maintain perceptions based on their experiences with drugs currently in use. Pertinent information, education and behaviour change communication strategies related to the change from SP to ACT should focus on the fact that the previous drug is no longer effective so as to induce consistent use of the new drug.
 Utilization of Health Care Services for STD Treatment in Kahe Community of Kilimanjaro Region in Tan
作者  Kisanga, Felix S.;Mnyika, Kagoma S.;Tengia-Kessy, Anna;Moshiro, Candida;Klepp, Knut-Inge & Kvåle, Gunnar
期刊  East African Journal of Public Health 卷期  Vol. 1, No. 1, 2004 时间  2011.01.01
摘要   A population based survey set to find out the existence of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) and use of health care services among residents of Oria village in Kahe ward of Kilimanjaro region in northern Tanzania in 1997. A few of the STDs symptoms covered were history of painful micturation (dysuria), urethral discharge and genital ulcer(s). This was a cross-sectional study using quantitative data collection technique in which a total of 898 villagers were interviewed. Findings revealed that in the past 223 (25.4%) had dysuria, 69 (7.7%) had urethral discharge while 28 (3.1%) had genital ulcer. At the time of the interview, 88 (9.8%) people had dysuria, 29 (3.2%) had urethral discharge and 9 (1.0%) had genital ulcer. Health care was sought from different sources, mostly from modern health care especially government health facilities (HFs) followed by private HFs and less so to pharmacies and traditional healers. No significant differences were found between the proportions of respondents that pertained to the different demographic variables with regard to utilization of the different health services. However, it is doubtful as to whether people treat themselves adequately since among those currently having STDs symptoms, some had previous history of treatment for the same problems. This may be due to either inadequate treatment, re-infection from untreated partners or new infections. A real explanation ought to be explored through future studies. Meanwhile, there is need to re-direct the existing strategies in addressing STDs in Oria village. The increasing demand for STDs management requires an increase in the number of HFs both private and public that have skilled health workers, the necessary supplies and drugs. Special efforts be made to target high risk groups using different health education packages on STDs and reinforce contact tracing while alternative sources of health care need to be explored further.
作者  Kabir, Mohammad A.
期刊  East African Journal of Public Health 卷期  Vol. 4, No. 2, 2007 时间  2010.12.20
关键词  Bangladesh, ever-married women, safe-delivery, medically trained persons, logistic regression
摘要   Objectives:This study examined the safe-delivery practices and its associated factors among rural Bangladeshi women. Design:Cross-sectional survey data from Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) 2004 were used. Setting:Rural Bangladesh. Participants:A total of 3874 ever-married rural women age 10-49 years. Measurements: Age, education, working, religion, clinic visit, association with media, place and types of attendants at delivery. Results:About 94% deliveries took place at homes and 67% were assisted by the untrained traditional birth attendants called Dai. The qualified doctors and nurses (professionals) assisted only 9% of the deliveries while about 13% are by the trained traditional birth attendants. Age group has a significant effect on safe-delivery practices. Education of the respondents as well as their partner’s has direct effect on delivery practices. The uneducated women were less likely to have their delivery assisted by the medically trained persons (MTPs) while women with 10 or more years of schooling had 29 times higher probability than the uneducated women. Currently working and religion had also statistically significant. Mass media influences directly delivery practices in rural areas. The women who listen to radio and watch television had more than 2 times higher probability of having delivery assisted by MTPs than that of non-user counterparts. There is more than 4 times higher chance of delivery assisted by the MTPs than that of women with no reading of news papers or magazines. Conclusions:Delivery practices in rural Bangladesh are unsafe, took place at homes, conducted by untrained traditional birth attendants and associated positively with demographic, socio-economic, cultural and programmatic factors.
作者  D.S.Tarimo and W.B. Manyilizu
期刊  East African Journal of Public Health 卷期  Vol. 3, No. 1, 2006 时间  2010.12.20
关键词  Malaria control, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), clients' perceptions, Tanzania
摘要   Objective:To assess clients' perceptions on Sulfadoxine / Sulfalene - Pyrimethamine (SP) use as the 1st line drug and perceived alternative drugs for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Methods:Health facilities cross-sectional survey of 365 caregivers of underfives with fever was conducted in a malaria holoendemic area. Using semi-structured questionnaires, caregivers were interviewed to explore their perceptions on efficacy & safety of SP for the management of childhood malaria and the perceived alternative drugs to SP. Results:Clients held the notion that childhood febrile episodes had gone down after the policy change; however, SP could fail to treat febrile episodes because of wrong diagnosis (not malaria) or ineffectiveness. There was the misconception that "SP" in the different names such as Fansidar (Sulfadoxie-Pyrimethamine) and Metakelfin (Sulfalene-Pyrimethamine) are different drugs inducing half of clients to perceive that Fansidar or Metakelfin should be used in case of "SP" failure. Fansidar was considered to have more side effects, mainly cutaneous reactions; raising concerns as clients associated the side effects with HIV / AIDS. Adherence to SP was inconsistent, as some clients preferred Quinine. Conclusions:The notion that "Fansidar" and "Metakelfin" are different from SP and could be used in case of "SP" failure indicates the need for using chemical rather than trade names in prescribing antimalarial drugs. The success of a new antimalarial policy requires a countrywide monitoring and reporting side effects and a mechanism for allaying fears is put in place. Continuing education to health workers and clients is necessary for consistent adherence to a new policy.
作者  Anna Tengia-Kessy and Hussein Kamugisha
期刊  East African Journal of Public Health 卷期  Vol. 3, No. 2, 2006 时间  2010.12.20
摘要   Objective:The main purpose of this study was to explore sources of information and levels of knowledge on sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among youth in secondary schools in Ilala district, Dar es Salaam. Methods:A cross sectional survey was undertaken among secondary school youth selected randomly from three public secondary schools. A self-administered questionnaire was used to gather information on socio-demographic characteristics, sexual activity, STIs-related knowledge and sources of information on STIs among the respondents. Results:A total of 312 youth aged 12-22 years participated, 54.3 percent being female. The large majority of the participants were aged 15-18 years (57.3 percent). About 28 percent of the respondents (40.4 percent of boys and 16.9 percent of girls) reported to have experienced sexual intercourse. While teachers were reported to be the least source of information on STIs, the mass media, particularly television was perceived to be the commonest source from which a greater part of the youth got such information (23.4 and 75.0 percent respectively). Generally, less than three-quarters (70 percent) of the students had a good level of STIs-related knowledge and this knowledge was significantly associated with increasing chronological age and current level of education of the respondents (Chi square for trend = 15.06, p = 0.000 and 13.06, p = 0.000 respectively). Conclusion:Despite STIs being rampant among young people worldwide, these findings suggest a high sexual activity among the respondents and a relatively low level of knowledge on STIs. Moreover, although family life education has been integrated into the school national school curriculum, majority of the students got information on STIs via the media. In view of the findings, it is recommended that additional efforts are required to raise the level of knowledge on STIs amongst the youth in schools to enable them make informed sexual decisions. It is also imperative that heath messages targeting youth take into consideration the acceptability of the medium exploited.
作者  Murat Unalacak, Ayhan Sögüt, Erol Aktunç, Nejat Demircan, Remzi Altin
期刊  European Journal of General Medicine 卷期  Vol. 1, No. 3, 2004 时间  2010.12.20
关键词  Enuresis nocturna, risk factors, children, Turkey
摘要   To find out prevalence of enuresis nocturna (EN) among school age children, and to determine associated factors and regional differences, an epidemiological study was performed among children between 7 to 12 years living in Zonguldak, Turkey. Data were collected at schools by a questionnaire. EN prevalence was found as 8.9 %, most (75.7 %) were primary, and the rest were secondary. Prevalence decreased as the age increased in both genders. There was a positive relationship of EN with positive family history, presence of EN in a brother or a sister, encopresis, sleep disturbances, a maternal education of primary school or less, working mother, low monthly income, low school success and introversion or extroversion. Only 19.8 % of the cases preferred medical treatment modalities, other preferences were waiting for spontaneous improvement, awaking the child for voiding, water restriction and diapering, in decreasing order. As EN is a disease that can result in low self-esteem, some other psychological problems and low school success, it must be treated. Informing these parents wherever they are met, especially at primary health care settings, is necessary both not to miss patients and to convince the parents for treatment.
 Tetanus and its Treatment Outcome in Dar Es Salaam: Need for Male Vaccination
作者  Mchembe, Mabula D & Mwafongo, Victor
期刊  East African Journal of Public Health 卷期  Vol. 2, No. 2, 2005 时间  2010.12.20
关键词  Tetanus, management, vaccination, male, and mortality
摘要   Objective:Tetanus is a life threatening infection relatively uncommon in developed Countries but occurs frequently in developing Countries with a high case fatality rate.A retrospective study for the period of twelve months (January-to- December 2004), twenty-two cases of tetanus were admitted in the intensive care unit (I.C.U) of Muhimbili National Hospital, which is the largest referral and teaching hospital situated in Dar-es-salaam. Methods:All patients with clinical tetanus (regardless of their age and sex) admitted at the intensive care unit (ICU) at Muhimbili National referral hospital in Dar-es-salaam Tanzania. Results:Among these patients, majority were males 91% and only two were females. Their age ranged between 20-40 years and no neonatal tetanus. Most of them died in I.C.U. (72.7%) after staying for about 1-10 days. Those who survived some stayed in hospital (I.C.U) for about 31 days. The nature of injury was cut wounds to the extremities in 40.9% and 18.2% the source of injury could not be established. Conclusions:The National immunization program against tetanus is highly needed as a basis for prevention of tetanus to reduce morbidity and mortality among young, energetic male age group in Tanzania. The program puts more emphasis on children and women, it is high time the campaign involves young men who are the bread earners. This will also minimize costs of caring tetanus patients in the hospital. Apart from National campaign of immunization against tetanus health education is required in the general public in Dar-es-salaam on the early hygienic care of wounds to reduce the source of infection.
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