Environment
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 Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon by a halotolerant bacterial consortium isolated fr
作者  Arulazhagan, P.;Moarefvand, P. & Yeom, I. T.
作者单位  
期刊  International Journal of Environment Science and Technology 卷期  Vol. 7, No. 4, 2010 时间  2011.01.17
关键词  Bacterial consortium; Biodegradation; Halotolerant; Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Salinity
摘要   The biodegradability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as naphthalene, fluorene, anthracene and phenanthrene by a halotolerant bacterial consortium isolated from marine environment was investigated. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons degrading bacterial consortium was enriched from mixture saline water samples collected from Chennai (Port of Chennai, salt pan), India. The consortium potently degraded polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (> 95%) at 30g/L of sodium chloride concentration in 4 days. The consortium was able to degrade 39 to 45% of different polycyclic hydrocarbons at 60 g/L NaCl concentration. Due to increase in salinity, the percent degradation decreased. To enhance polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons degradation, yeast extract was added as an additional substrate at 60g/L NaCl concentration. After the addition of yeast extract, the consortium degraded > 74 % of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at 60 g/L NaCl concentration in 4 days. The consortium was also able to degrade PAHs at different concentrations (5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 ppm) with 30 g/L of NaCl concentration. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons degrading halotolerant bacterial consortium consists of three bacterial strains, namelyOchrobactrumsp.,Enterobacter cloacaeandStenotrophomonas maltophilia.
 THE INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENT ON FATIGUE AND FRACTURE OF IRON ALUMINIDES
作者  
作者单位  
期刊  Acta Metallurgica Sinica(English Letters) 卷期  1995, 8(z1 时间  2011.01.10
关键词  aluminides, cyclic, fatigue, fracture,iron aluminides,
摘要  
 Felt Occupational and Environmental Health Hazards Among Workers in Small-Scale Industries in Dar Es
作者  Rongo, LMB;de Haan, S;Barten, F;Msamanga, G I;Dolmans, WMV;van Naerssen, T & Heederik, D
作者单位  
期刊  East African Journal of Public Health 卷期  Vol. 2, No. 1, 2005 时间  2010.12.20
关键词  Urban informal sector; occupational health; environmental health; community participation; focus group discussion
摘要   Objective:While the informal sector is rapidly emerging as the major source of employment in poor countries, little is known to the health hazards encountered by the workers in small-scale industries (SSI). Methods:We interviewed and conducted 11 focus group discussions (FGDs) among the workers in SSI to assess felt occupational and environmental health hazards (EHH), two each among food vendors and residents living near SSI to assess their perception of EHH; and two FGDs among health workers to assess work related health complaints among the SSI workers. Results:SSI workers were aware of occupational and EHH. SSI owners were not given permanent workplace by local government. The unavailability of permanent workplaces has caused some owners of SSI to give a low priority in investing in health and safety at workplaces. Conclusions:A clear policy by Local Government for the informal sector addressing priority issues such as permanent workplaces for SSI is needed. Also a reorientation of health services towards protection and promotion of health of low-income urban residents in SSI may contribute to an improvement of working conditions and thus a positive impact on workers’ health in urban centres.
 A stochastic optimization approach for paper recycling reverse logistics network design under uncert
作者  Soner Kara, S. & Onut, S.
作者单位  
期刊  International Journal of Environment Science and Technology 卷期  Vol. 7, No. 4, 2010 时间  2010.12.15
关键词  Network optimization; Recycling; Two-Stage Stochastic programming
摘要   One of the most important objectives of a manufacturing firm is the efficient design and operation of its supply chain to maximize profit. Paper is an example of a valuable material that can be recycled and recovered. Uncertainty is one of the characteristics of the real world. The methods that cope with uncertainty help researchers get realistic results. In this study, a two-stage stochastic programing model is proposed to determine a long term strategy including optimal facility locations and optimal flow amounts for large scale reverse supply chain network design problem under uncertainty. This network design problem includes optimal recycling and collection center locations and optimal flow amounts between the nodes in the multi-facility environment. Proposed model is suitable for recycling/manufacturing type of systems in reverse supply chain. All deterministic, stochastic models are mixed-integer programing models and are solved by commercial software GAMS 21.6/CPLEX 9.0.
 Simulation of global warming effect on outdoor thermal comfort conditions
作者  Roshan, Gh. R.;Ranjbar, F. & Orosa, J.A.
作者单位  
期刊  International Journal of Environment Science and Technology 卷期  Vol. 7, No. 3, 2010 时间  2010.11.30
关键词  Bioclimatic; Energy; Forecast; General circulation models
摘要   In the coming decades, global warming and increase in temperature, in different regions of the world, may change indoor and outdoor thermal comfort conditions and human health. The aim of this research was to study the effects of global warming on thermal comfort conditions in indoor ambiences in Iran. To study the increase in temperature, model for assessment of greenhouse-gas induced climate change scenario generator compound model has been used together with four scenarios and to estimate thermal comfort conditions, adaptive model of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-conditioning Engineers has been used. In this study, Iran was divided into 30 zones, outdoor conditions were obtained using meteorological data of 80 climatological stations and changes in neutral comfort conditions in 2025, 2050, 2075 and 2100 were predicted. In accordance with each scenario, findings from this study showed that temperature in the 30 zones will increase by 2100 to between 3.4 °C and 5.6 °C. In the coming decades and in the 30 studied zones, neutral comfort temperature will increase and be higher and more intense in the central and desert zones of Iran. The low increase in this temperature will be connected to the coastal areas of the Caspian and Oman Sea in southeast Iran. This increase in temperature will be followed by a change in thermal comfort and indoor energy consumption from 8.6 % to 13.1 % in air conditioning systems. As a result, passive methods as thermal inertia are proposed as a possible solution.
 ON THE EXPECTED DISCOUNTED PENALTY FUNCTION IN A MARKOV-DEPENDENT RISK MODEL WITH CONSTANT DIVIDEND
作者  刘娟1, 2, 徐建成1, 胡亦钧2 LIU Juan1, 2, XU Jian-Cheng1, HU Yi-Jun2
作者单位  
期刊  数学物理学报 卷期  1981 5 (6) 时间  2010.09.20
关键词  Markov-dependent risk model
摘要   This article considers a Markov-dependent risk model with a constant dividend barrier. A system of integro-differential equations with boundary conditions satisfied by the expected discounted penalty function, with given initial environment state, is derived and solved. Explicit formulas for the discounted penalty function are obtained when the initial surplus is zero or when all the claim amount distributions are from rational family. In two state model, numerical illustrations with exponential claim amounts are given.
 Weight Changes in Clients on Hormonal Contraceptives in Zaria, Nigeria
作者  Saadatu Sule and Oladapo Shittu
作者单位  
期刊  African Journal of Reproductive Health 卷期  Vol. 9, No. 2, 2005 时间  2010.08.23
关键词  Contraception, weight, counselling
摘要   Misconceptions exist in Nigeria about the effects of hormonal contraceptives on weight, which may have negative effects on contraceptive use. Data from case notes of clients attending the reproductive health centre at the Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, between 1993 and 1995, were analysed to determine the effects of hormonal contraceptives on body weight, comparing them to clients using intrauterine contraceptive devices. Weight changes were not significantly different in clients using hormonal contraceptives and those using intra-uterine contraceptive devices. This information will be beneficial in contraceptive counselling for clients in this environment and provide a baseline for further research. (Afr J Reprod Health2005; 9[2]: 92-100)Il existe des idées erronnées au Nigéria concernant les effets des contraceptifs hormonaux sur le poids, chose qui pourrait avoir des effets négatifs sur l'usage des contraceptifs. Les données recueillies des dossiers des clientes qui fréquentaient le centre de santé de la reproduction au Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Ahmadu Bello à Zaria, entre 1993 et 1995, ont été analysées pour déterminer les effets des contraceptifs hormonaux sur le poids corporel, en les comparant aux clientes qui utilisent les dispositifs inter-utérins comme méthodes contraceptives. Il n'y avait pas des différences importantes en ce qui concerne les modifications de poids chez les clientes qui utilisent les contraceptifs hormonaux et ceux qui utilisent les dispositifs intra-utérins. La consultation contraceptive profitera de ce renseignement pour les clients de ce milieu et fournira une ligne de base en vue d'une recherche plus approfondie. (Rev Afr Santé Reprod2005; 9[2]: 92-100)
 Weight Changes in Clients on Hormonal Contraceptives in Zaria, Nigeria
作者  Saadatu Sule and Oladapo Shittu
作者单位  
期刊  African Journal of Reproductive Health 卷期  Vol. 9, No. 2, 2005 时间  2010.08.23
关键词  Contraception, weight, counselling
摘要   Il existe des idées erronnées au Nigéria concernant les effets des contraceptifs hormonaux sur le poids, chose qui pourrait avoir des effets négatifs sur l'usage des contraceptifs. Les données recueillies des dossiers des clientes qui fréquentaient le centre de santé de la reproduction au Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Ahmadu Bello à Zaria, entre 1993 et 1995, ont été analysées pour déterminer les effets des contraceptifs hormonaux sur le poids corporel, en les comparant aux clientes qui utilisent les dispositifs inter-utérins comme méthodes contraceptives. Il n'y avait pas des différences importantes en ce qui concerne les modifications de poids chez les clientes qui utilisent les contraceptifs hormonaux et ceux qui utilisent les dispositifs intra-utérins. La consultation contraceptive profitera de ce renseignement pour les clients de ce milieu et fournira une ligne de base en vue d'une recherche plus approfondie. (Rev Afr Santé Reprod2005; 9[2]: 92-100)Misconceptions exist in Nigeria about the effects of hormonal contraceptives on weight, which may have negative effects on contraceptive use. Data from case notes of clients attending the reproductive health centre at the Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, between 1993 and 1995, were analysed to determine the effects of hormonal contraceptives on body weight, comparing them to clients using intrauterine contraceptive devices. Weight changes were not significantly different in clients using hormonal contraceptives and those using intra-uterine contraceptive devices. This information will be beneficial in contraceptive counselling for clients in this environment and provide a baseline for further research. (Afr J Reprod Health2005; 9[2]: 92-100)
 Levels of cadmium, manganese and lead in water and algae;Spirogyra aequinoctialis
作者  Kaonga, C. C.;Chiotha, S. S.;Monjerezi, M.;Fabiano, E. & Henry, E. M.
作者单位  
期刊  International Journal of Environment Science and Technology 卷期  Vol. 5, No. 4, 2008 时间  2010.08.23
关键词  Heavy metals, accumulation, biological indicator, pollution, environment
摘要   This study assessed the ability of filamentous green algae;Spirogyraaequinoctialis to accumulate manganese, cadmium and lead from water. Water pH was also determined. Samples ofS. aequinoctialisand their respective water environments were taken from designated sampling points in the city of Blantyre and Malawi during the rainy and dry season in order to capture seasonal variations. The concentration of metals inS. aequinoctialiswere higher than in the corresponding water environment in both seasons, but lower in the rainy season than the dry season. In the rainy season the concentrations were (inS. aequinoctialisand (water)): Mn 0.432- 5.641 mg/L (ND- 0.530 mg/L), Cd ND- 0.016 mg/L (0.07- 0.111 mg/L) and Pb ND- 0.965 mg/L (0.011- 0.098 mg/L). In the dry season the concentrations were: Mn 0.281- 16.132 mg/L (0.035- 0.626 mg/L), Cd 0.22- 0.912 mg/L (0.014- 0.111 mg/L) and Pb ND- 0.972 mg/L (ND- 0.23 mg/L). This study has shown thatS. aequinoctialishas the capability of accumulating manganese, cadmium and lead. Therefore it can be used as a biological indicator for long term heavy metal water pollution monitoring.
 The best available technology for small electroplating plants applying analytical hierarchy process
作者  M. R. Dabaghian;S. H. Hashemi;T. Ebadi & R. Maknoon
作者单位  
期刊  International Journal of Environment Science and Technology 卷期  Vol. 5, No. 4, 2008 时间  2010.08.23
关键词  Heavy metals, reverse osmosis, nano filtration, ion exchange, chemical precipitation
摘要   In this study analytical hierarchy process approach which uses expert's knowledge, was applied for selection of the best wastewater treatment alternative for electroplating workshops, located in Tehran province, Iran. This method can be applied for complicated multi-criteria decision making to obtain scientific and reasonable results. Four wastewater treatment alternatives including reverse osmosis, nano filtration, ion exchange, and chemical precipitation were evaluated and ranked based on economical, technical, environmental/ social aspects. Each criterion includes different indices such as land area, capital cost, sludge disposal issues, operating and maintenance, local suppliers and warranty, system flexibility, required skilled and non skilled man power safety, and etc. The results showed that reverse osmosis achieved the maximum general profits and can be the best choice. Sensitivity analysis can shows the effect of inputs parameters change on the results. Sensitivity analysis was applied for each criterion. The results illustrated that for economic and technical criterion, chemical precipitation and for environment criterion, reverse osmosis were qualified.
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