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 Assessment of airborne bacteria and fungi in an indoor and outdoor environment
作者  Yassin, M.F. & Almouqatea, S.
期刊  International Journal of Environment Science and Technology 卷期  Vol. 7, No. 3, 2010 时间  2010.12.13
关键词  Aspergillum; Bioaerosols; Conventional methods; Microorgansim
摘要   Airborne indoor and outdoor bacteria and fungi were assessed during the spring season using conventional methods to investigate the enumeration and identification of airborne micro-organisms. This was determined through air quality sampling using the 'open plate technique'. The air samples were collected during the spring season (March-May) from four different locations. Conventional enumeration of airborne micro-organisms relies on culture-based or microscopic methods. Although a culture-based analysis is most widely used for bio-aerosol, four public places located in urban residential areas were selected for indoor/outdoor air bio-pollutant measurement. The public places included kitchens, classrooms, recreational areas, laboratories. Public parks are an important facility associated with the environmental exposure of children. Cultivation and total microscopic enumeration methods were employed for the sample analysis. 26 groups of bacteria and fungi, either of human or environmental origin were detected. Environmental agents generally predominated while significantly higher counts were detected as the level of hygiene or standard of housing dropped. Seven genera of fungi, mainly members of the genus Aspergillum, were isolated from all residents. Bacteria shows higher growth numbers as opposed to the slow growing fungi. Sample collection and pretreatment, determination techniques and performance results are summarized and discussed.
 Mapping and analysing the diversity of the genus Acantholimon taxa in Turkey by geographic informati
作者  Hakan Mete DOĞAN1
期刊  Turkish Journal of Botany 卷期  2011,42(1) 时间  2010.11.25
关键词  Acantholimon, Anatolia, biodiversity, ecology, GIS, mapping, spatial analysis, IUCN
摘要   We describe the spatial distribution of the genus Acantholimon Boiss. (Plumbaginaceae) taxa in Turkey, and assess the role that environmental variables may be playing on this distribution. We collected a large number of specimens from 418 geo-referenced sampling sites between 2000 and 2004, and established a point database using geographic information systems (GIS) software. As a result, we identified and mapped 67 taxa; 43 of the determined taxa appear to be endemic. We re-evaluated the current conservation status of the taxa at a national level using recent IUCN Red List categories. In addition, we extracted the corresponding environmental variables of each determined point from the updated and available environmental raster map layers of Turkey and analysed the obtained taxa and environmental data by Hierarchical Clustering and Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA). Hierarchical Clustering delineated the subgroups, which have similarities at various levels in respect to environmental variables. The CCA results indicated that 8 environmental variables including longitude, distance to sea, maximum temperature, mean temperature, minimum temperature, potential evapotranspiration, elevation, and precipitation are the most effective in explaining the spatial distribution of the 18 Acantholimon taxa in Turkey.
作者  Kiwara, Angwara D.
期刊  East African Journal of Public Health 卷期  Vol. 4, No. 1, 2007 时间  2010.11.20
关键词  Prepayment for Health Care, Health Microfinance Insurance Scheme, Group Premiums.
摘要   Objective:The main objective was to assess how group premiums can help poor people in the informal economy prepay for health care services. Methods:A comparative approach was adopted to study four groups of informal economy operators (cobblers, welders, carpenters, small scale market retailers) focusing on a method of prepayment which could help them access health care services. Two groups with a total of 714 operators were organized to prepay for health care services through a group premium, while the other two groups with a total of 702 operators were not organized to prepay through this approach. They prepaid through individual premium, each operator paying from his or her sources. Data on the four groups which lived in the same city was collected through a questionnaire and focus group discussions. Data collected was focused on health problems, health seeking behaviour and payment for health care services. Training of all the groups on prepaid health care financing based on individual based premium payment and group based premium payment was done. Groups were then free to choose which method to use in prepaying for health care. Prepayment through the two methods was then observed over a period of three years. Trends of membership attrition and retention were documented for both approaches. Results:Data collected showed that the four groups were similar in many respects. These similarities included levels of education, housing, and social services such as water supplies, health problems, family size and health seeking behaviour. At the end of a period of three years 76% of the members from the two groups who chose group premium payment were still members of the prepayment health scheme and were receiving health care. For the two groups which opted for individual premium payment only 15% of their members were still receiving health care services at the end of three years. Conclusion:Group premium is a useful tool in improving accessibility to health care services in the poorer segments of the population especially the informal economy operators
 The Need for Enhancement of Research, Development, and Commercialization of Natural Medicinal Produc
作者  Muhammad, Bala Yauri & Awaisu, Ahmed
期刊  African Journal of Traditional Complementary and Alternative Medicines 卷期  Vol. 5, No. 2, 2008 时间  2010.08.13
关键词  research, development, commercialization, natural medicinal products, Nigeria.
摘要   The use of natural medicinal products in modern medicine as complementary and alternative therapies is of the increase globally. More so in developing and third world countries where the cost of research and development of synthetic drugs is prohibitive and technological facilities as well as expertise are lacking. These, coupled with the crumbling health care management systems in many of such countries make herbal medicines attractive alternatives. The potential medicinal values of these plant products are not being properly harnessed and research and development (R&D) in this area are lagging behind. R&D and consultancy services span from phytochemical analysis, standardization and quality control of herbs, and dosage forms design to preclinical and clinical trials. This paper tries to highlight all the necessary steps needed to conduct research and development in this area and proposes the nitty – gritty needed to impose statutory regulations on ensuring the quality, safety, efficacy, and commercial distribution of such products. The paper examines these important issues and highlights by way of examples, some of the steps taken and the positive achievements of the people and government of Malaysia towards self reliance in the area of natural medicinal plant research. It is primarily intended to map out strategies on how Nigeria in conjunction with research and academic institutions can be actively involved in natural products R&D, taking the Malaysian experience as a prototype. It is also aimed at urging government’s efforts to encourage research in this area and impose regulations for commercial production and distribution of such products.
 Can Calcium And Sodium Channel Blockers Attenuate Hemodynamic Responses To Endotracheal Intubation?
作者  Govindaiah, Manjunath Honnavara;Suryanarayana, Venkatesh Gubbi;Vas, Prima;Vlk, Jennifer Leigh & Chandra, Sathees Beladakere Channaiah
期刊  European Journal of General Medicine 卷期  Vol. 5, No. 4, 2008 时间  2010.08.13
关键词  Calcium channel, sodium channel, circulatory response, endotracheal intubation, hemodynamic change
摘要   Aim:Direct laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation following induction of anesthesia almost always triggers powerful cardiovascular responses. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of diltiazem (calcium channel blocker), lidocaine (sodium channel blocker) and a combination of these two drugs in the attenuation of circular responses to endotracheal intubation in normotensive patients. Methods:120 Patients were randomly assigned to one of the following four groups. Group I received a single 0.2 mg/kg IV bolus of diltiazem 1 minute prior to laryngoscopy and intubation (n=30), Group II received a single 1.5 mg/kg IV bolus of lidocaine (n=30) 3 minutes prior and Group III received combination of these two drugs 1 minute prior to laryngoscopy and intubation (n=30). Group IV served as the control and received a single 5 mL IV bolus of normal saline. Changes in heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were measured and then compared within and between groups. Rate pressure product (RPP) was calculated and evaluated as well. Results:Either diltiazem or lidocaine alone blunts unwanted hemodynamic responses to intubation. However, significantly less circulatory responses were experienced by patients receiving both than those receiving either lidocaine or diltiazem alone. Conclusion:Given the difference in the pharmacological mechanisms of these two drugs, the prophylactic therapy with combination of diltiazem+lidocaine is significantly more effective than any one alone for attenuating hemodynamic changes to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation, without producing increased risk of hypertension.
 Developing a spatio-temporal model of risk management for earthquake life detection rescue team
作者  Vafaeinezhad, A. R.;Alesheikh, A. A. & Nouri, J.
期刊  International Journal of Environment Science and Technology 卷期  Vol. 7, No. 2, 2010 时间  2010.07.05
关键词  Crisis management; Geographic information system; Round-robin scheduling; Team activities; Time-geography
摘要   Crisis management is a time-critical and collaborative activity that requires rapid assessment and decision- making. This study aims to develop a framework to increase teamwork efficiency by spatio-temporal modeling of human group activities in geospatial information systems. For this purpose, time geography framework was extended with round-robin scheduling and then was integrated in geographic information system environment to manage human activities in a spatio-temporal framework. The proposed framework enjoys the graphical presentation of the tasks to be executed, as well as mathematical modeling of the complex interactions to be managed. To validate the proposed model, activities of an earthquake life-detection team in normal and suggested framework were simulated and assessed. An average improvement of 18.69 % (in time and the number of rescuers) was observed using the proposed framework. The suggested f