Humanities Arts
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 HEALTH WORKERS PERCEPTIONS ON CHLOROQUINE AND SULFADOXINE / SULFALENE - PYRIMETHAMINE MONOTHERAPIES:
作者  Tarimo, DS & Malekela, DA
作者单位  
期刊  East African Journal of Public Health 卷期  Vol. 4, No. 1, 2007 时间  2011.01.20
关键词  Perceptions, Chloroquine, Sulfadoxine / Sulfalene-Pyrimethamine, Artemisinin Combination Therapy, policy change, Tanzania.
摘要   Objective:To describe, from health workers (HWs) perspectives, the potential and actual barriers to the implementation of the first change of policy from chloroquine (CQ) to Sulfadoxine / Sulfalane – Pyrimewthamine (SP) in preparation for the second change of policy to Artemisinin based Combination Therapies (ACTs). Methods:A descriptive cross-sectional survey of HWs using questionnaire interviews was carried out in public and private health facilities in Songea Urban district. The interview concerned awareness and knowledge on the commonly used antimalarial drugs as given in the new policy, focusing on SP use and the associated side effects as well as perceptions on the potency and safety of SP versus CQ and the perceived alternative antimalarial drugs to non-response or reaction to SP. Results:Awareness on the new policy was very high; 91.4% of HWs were aware that SP was the new drug. Although the majority of HWs (81.9%) reported using the new policy as soon as it was out, a significant percentage (76.2%) reported continued use of SP (P-value < 0.001). SP was perceived to have a low potency in that it was slow in fever clearance. A significant percentage (65.7%) of HWs reported a history of problems with SP use namely headaches and skin reactions. Quinine (QN) was significantly frequently mentioned as the perceived alternative drug to CQ (61.1%) and non-response (56.6%) or reaction (54.1%) to SP. Conclusion:Findings show that SP was generally not preferred by HWs, and they continued to use CQ despite the evidence that it was no longer effective indicating that. HWs tend to maintain perceptions based on their experiences with drugs currently in use. Pertinent information, education and behaviour change communication strategies related to the change from SP to ACT should focus on the fact that the previous drug is no longer effective so as to induce consistent use of the new drug.
 ORIGINAL ARTICLE - A STEREOLOGICAL STUDY ON AZUROPHILIC AND SPECIFIC GRANULES IN NEUTROPHILS OF PATI
作者  Ibrahim Mohammed Inuwa, Nona Viernes ,Ziad Zaidan
作者单位  
期刊  European Journal of General Medicine 卷期  Vol. 1, No. 4, 2004 时间  2011.01.01
关键词  Schizophrenia, antipsychotics, neutrophils
摘要   Antipsychotic drugs, frequently used for treating schizophrenia, have many unpleasant and sometimes life threatening side effects. Some of these side effects, such as agranulocytosis cannot be explained satisfactorily on the basis of the drugs' pharmacological actions. The first indication of this event is neutropenia which then progresses to full blown agranulocytosis. This study was carried out to quantitatively assess neutrophil maturity in patients on antipsychotic drugs using the appearance of their granules on electronmicroscopy. Blood samples were collected from schizophrenic patients (n = 20) before and six weeks after starting treatment with two types of Antipsychotic drugs (Risperidone and Chlorpromazine) and from healthy subjects (n = 21) having no history of antipsychotic drugs medication and processed for transmission electron microscopy. Volume density of azurophilic (electron-dense) granules in patients after treatment was found to be greater than both before treatment and in control group. The volume weighted mean volume of granules was significantly greater in cells of patients after treatment. There were significantly more neutrophils with fewer than three lobes of nuclei in patients after treatment than in controls or before treatment. These findings suggest neutrophil cellular immaturity in the patients during 6 weeks of treatment even though there was no haematological evidence of neutropenia. It is suggested that immaturity of neutrophils manifests before any evidence of neutropenia.
 CASE REPORT - HYPOTHYROIDISM ASSOCIATED TO MAYER-ROKITANSKY-KUSTER-HAUSER SYNDROME IN A 21-YEAR OLD
作者  Aydin Kurt, Neslihan Gültasli, Kemal Ridvan Yazicioglu, Ali Ipek, Gülçin Dilmen, Ismet Tas
作者单位  
期刊  European Journal of General Medicine 卷期  Vol. 1, No. 4, 2004 时间  2011.01.01
关键词  
摘要   MRKH syndrome is a rare but widely discussed developmental failure of in part or whole of the Mullerian duct. Twenty-one years old female patient presented with primary amenorrhea and with the history of long-standing hypothyroidism is discussed in this report.
 Utilization of Health Care Services for STD Treatment in Kahe Community of Kilimanjaro Region in Tan
作者  Kisanga, Felix S.;Mnyika, Kagoma S.;Tengia-Kessy, Anna;Moshiro, Candida;Klepp, Knut-Inge & Kvåle, Gunnar
作者单位  
期刊  East African Journal of Public Health 卷期  Vol. 1, No. 1, 2004 时间  2011.01.01
关键词  
摘要   A population based survey set to find out the existence of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) and use of health care services among residents of Oria village in Kahe ward of Kilimanjaro region in northern Tanzania in 1997. A few of the STDs symptoms covered were history of painful micturation (dysuria), urethral discharge and genital ulcer(s). This was a cross-sectional study using quantitative data collection technique in which a total of 898 villagers were interviewed. Findings revealed that in the past 223 (25.4%) had dysuria, 69 (7.7%) had urethral discharge while 28 (3.1%) had genital ulcer. At the time of the interview, 88 (9.8%) people had dysuria, 29 (3.2%) had urethral discharge and 9 (1.0%) had genital ulcer. Health care was sought from different sources, mostly from modern health care especially government health facilities (HFs) followed by private HFs and less so to pharmacies and traditional healers. No significant differences were found between the proportions of respondents that pertained to the different demographic variables with regard to utilization of the different health services. However, it is doubtful as to whether people treat themselves adequately since among those currently having STDs symptoms, some had previous history of treatment for the same problems. This may be due to either inadequate treatment, re-infection from untreated partners or new infections. A real explanation ought to be explored through future studies. Meanwhile, there is need to re-direct the existing strategies in addressing STDs in Oria village. The increasing demand for STDs management requires an increase in the number of HFs both private and public that have skilled health workers, the necessary supplies and drugs. Special efforts be made to target high risk groups using different health education packages on STDs and reinforce contact tracing while alternative sources of health care need to be explored further.
 SAFE-DELIVERY PRACTICES IN RURAL BANGLADESH AND ITS ASSOCIATED FACTORS: EVIDENCE FROM BANGLADESH DEM
作者  Kabir, Mohammad A.
作者单位  
期刊  East African Journal of Public Health 卷期  Vol. 4, No. 2, 2007 时间  2010.12.20
关键词  Bangladesh, ever-married women, safe-delivery, medically trained persons, logistic regression
摘要   Objectives:This study examined the safe-delivery practices and its associated factors among rural Bangladeshi women. Design:Cross-sectional survey data from Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) 2004 were used. Setting:Rural Bangladesh. Participants:A total of 3874 ever-married rural women age 10-49 years. Measurements: Age, education, working, religion, clinic visit, association with media, place and types of attendants at delivery. Results:About 94% deliveries took place at homes and 67% were assisted by the untrained traditional birth attendants called Dai. The qualified doctors and nurses (professionals) assisted only 9% of the deliveries while about 13% are by the trained traditional birth attendants. Age group has a significant effect on safe-delivery practices. Education of the respondents as well as their partner’s has direct effect on delivery practices. The uneducated women were less likely to have their delivery assisted by the medically trained persons (MTPs) while women with 10 or more years of schooling had 29 times higher probability than the uneducated women. Currently working and religion had also statistically significant. Mass media influences directly delivery practices in rural areas. The women who listen to radio and watch television had more than 2 times higher probability of having delivery assisted by MTPs than that of non-user counterparts. There is more than 4 times higher chance of delivery assisted by the MTPs than that of women with no reading of news papers or magazines. Conclusions:Delivery practices in rural Bangladesh are unsafe, took place at homes, conducted by untrained traditional birth attendants and associated positively with demographic, socio-economic, cultural and programmatic factors.
 TAENIASIS AND ITS SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPLICATION IN AWASSA TOWN AND ITS SURROUNDINGS, SOUTHERN ETHIOPIA
作者  Abunna, F.;Tilahun, G.;Megersa, B. & Regassa, A.
作者单位  
期刊  East African Journal of Public Health 卷期  Vol. 4, No. 2, 2007 时间  2010.12.20
关键词  Prevalence, Questionnaire, Risk factors, Taeniasis, T. saginata, Awassa, Ethiopia
摘要   Objective:The study was conducted between October 2005 and April 2006 in Awassa town and its surroundings to investigate the status of T. saginata taeniasis, its socio-economic importance and potential risk factors. Methods:Questionnaire survey was conducted on 120 volunteer individuals selected at random. Additionally, retrospective study on taenicidal drugs inventories at 12 pharmaceutical shops was conducted. Results:T. saginatataeniasis was a wide spread problem in the town and its surroundings with overall prevalence of 64.2% (77 out of 120) and maximum infection frequencies of five times per year. The prevalence of taeniasis was significantly varied between religion, occupation, raw meat consumption and use of spices with raw meat. Accordingly, Christian communities (OR = 5.2, 95% CI=1.20- 22.50), high-risk groups (OR = 4.05, 95% CI=1.27-12.93), raw meat consumers (OR = 7.9, 95% CI=2.46 - 5.66), and spices users (OR = 11.6, 95% CI=2.85- 47.28) had higher likelihood of acquiring taeniasis than Muslim communities, low risk groups, cooked meat eaters and non-spices users, respectively. Conversely, prevalence was not varied between sex, age, marital status and educational backgrounds of the respondents. Respondents’ preferences to available taenicidal drugs had strong linear relationship with drug dose sold (R2= 0.92), and showed that Niclosamide (46.8%) was the drug of first choice while Praziquantel (13%) was the least preferred drug. The taenicidal drug doses and treatment cost from 2002 to 2005 were estimated to be 4,913,346 adult doses and 820,343 USD (7,219,021 Eth. Birr as per rate of 2006). Conclusion:Taeniasis was a wide spread problem with higher prevalence and frequent infections in the town and its surroundings. Socio-cultural conditions and occupation were the major risk factors for the occurrence of the disease. Hence, owing to its public health and economic importance, taeniasis deserves serious attention in order to safeguard the public health.
 ENURESIS NOCTURNA PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS AMONG SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN IN NORTHWEST TURKEY
作者  Murat Unalacak, Ayhan Sögüt, Erol Aktunç, Nejat Demircan, Remzi Altin
作者单位  
期刊  European Journal of General Medicine 卷期  Vol. 1, No. 3, 2004 时间  2010.12.20
关键词  Enuresis nocturna, risk factors, children, Turkey
摘要   To find out prevalence of enuresis nocturna (EN) among school age children, and to determine associated factors and regional differences, an epidemiological study was performed among children between 7 to 12 years living in Zonguldak, Turkey. Data were collected at schools by a questionnaire. EN prevalence was found as 8.9 %, most (75.7 %) were primary, and the rest were secondary. Prevalence decreased as the age increased in both genders. There was a positive relationship of EN with positive family history, presence of EN in a brother or a sister, encopresis, sleep disturbances, a maternal education of primary school or less, working mother, low monthly income, low school success and introversion or extroversion. Only 19.8 % of the cases preferred medical treatment modalities, other preferences were waiting for spontaneous improvement, awaking the child for voiding, water restriction and diapering, in decreasing order. As EN is a disease that can result in low self-esteem, some other psychological problems and low school success, it must be treated. Informing these parents wherever they are met, especially at primary health care settings, is necessary both not to miss patients and to convince the parents for treatment.
 CASE REPORT - UNUSUAL PRESENTATION OF CONGENITAL PLASMODIUM VIVAX MALARIA IN A NEONATE FROM TURKEY
作者  Fuat Gürkan, Meki Bilici, Mehmet Davutoglu, Heybet Tüzün, Iclal A. Sucakli
作者单位  
期刊  European Journal of General Medicine 卷期  Vol. 1, No. 3, 2004 时间  2010.12.20
关键词  Congenital malaria, Plasmodium vivax, diagnosis
摘要   A 28-day-old full-term male neonate was admitted with symptoms and findings of jaundice, hepatosplenomegaly, thrombocytopenia and a cavernous hemangioma on the forearm. Patient"s mother gave a history of antimalarial drug usage before pregnancy. He did not have characteristic symptoms like fever and chills at presentation, and had an associated hemangioma which could partly explain the jaundice and thrombocytopenia. The diagnosis of congenital malaria was established only whenPlasmodiumvivaxwas detected after the third blood smear.
 CASE REPORT - SPONTANEOUS RUPTURE OF THE SPLEEN IN A HEMODIALYSIS PATIENT
作者  Mustafa Aldemir, Ali Süner, Veysel Kidir, Ozan Balakan, Tahir Çelenk
作者单位  
期刊  European Journal of General Medicine 卷期  Vol. 1, No. 3, 2004 时间  2010.12.20
关键词  Spleen rupture, hemodialysis.
摘要   Hypovolemic shock and spontaneous splenic rupture (SSR) are unusual fatal complications in the uraemic patients. We described a case of SSR in a 29-year-old hemodialysis (HD) patient. The diagnosis was confirmed with the acute abdomen picture included the left upper abdominal and left shoulder pain together with shock and ultrasound findings. The splenectomy was performed. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged from hospital on the 5thday. The mechanism of the rupture is still unknown, but the rupture and subcapsular haematomas of spleen may be induced by the uraemic coagulopathy, the use of anticoagulants during HD, malignant hypertension and unrecognised microtrauma. Splenic rupture should be considered in any patient with abdominal pain and shock, regardless of a history of trauma or previously known risk factors for spontaneous rupture. An aggressive multidisciplinary approach to the management of these patients may decrease the mortality rate.
 Epidemiology of Measles in Tanzania: A Hospital-Based Survey of Measles Morbidity and Mortality
作者  Mnyika, Kagoma S & Akim, Caroline
作者单位  
期刊  East African Journal of Public Health 卷期  Vol. 2, No. 2, 2005 时间  2010.12.20
关键词  
摘要   Objective:To estimate measles morbidity and mortality in selected regions on mainland Tanzania Design:Cross-sectional study Setting:Hospital-based review of existing records on measles morbidity and mortality in the selected district hospitals on mainland Tanzania. Methods:Review of records on measles morbidity and mortality was performed using a standard instrument adopted from the Ministry of Health. The instrument was pre-tested before use. Researchers were recruited from the Muhimbili University College of Health Sciences and were trained on how to collect data from the hospital records. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Ministry of Health in Dar es Salaam. Upon arrival in the respective regions, the researchers recruited and trained local research assistants on methods of data collection. Completed questionnaire forms were entered into a computer and data cleaning was done before data analysis. Results:Measles was found to occur in individuals of over 15 years of age and beyond. Overall 35% (N=2277) of all measles cases were reported from the Iringa region while Mara region had the lowest number of cases. On the other hand Shinyanga had the highest case fatality rate (6%) compared with other regions. Mortality was higher in children below two years of age and among individuals who had no history of measles vaccination. Conclusion:We conclude that despite high measles vaccination coverage, measles is still a public health problem in Tanzania. Efforts should be made to give several booster doses up to the age of 15 years.
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