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 Our ideas for introduction of single-port surgery
作者  Kojima, Yutaka;Tomiki, Yuichi & Sakamoto, Kazuhiro
作者单位  
期刊  Journal of Minimal Access Surgery 卷期  Vol. 7, No. 1, 2011 时间  2010.12.28
关键词  Single-incision access surgery, single port surgery
摘要   Single-port surgery, which is also called single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS), laparoscopic single-site surgery, or single-port access surgery, has been performed in several countries. However, it has not been widely adopted throughout the world because there still remain some challenging problems to be solved, in terms of safety and technology, and the majority of devices specific to SILS are under development and have not been approved by the Japanese Pharmaceutical Affairs Law. Herein, we introduce single-incision access using existing surgical devices that will give us the opportunity to adopt SILS to our hospital.
 Building Alliances from Ambivalence: Evaluation of Abortion Values Clarification Workshops with Stak
作者  Ellen MH Mitchell, Karen Trueman, Mosotho Gabriel and Lindsey B Bickers Bock
作者单位  
期刊  African Journal of Reproductive Health 卷期  Vol. 9, No. 3, 2005 时间  2010.07.27
关键词  Abortion, behaviour, attitude, partnership, advocacy, Limpopo
摘要   A retrospective evaluation of attitudinal, behavioural and knowledge change among diverse stakeholder groups was conducted in Limpopo Province of South Africa to assess the effectiveness of a series of values clarification (VC) interventions. Telephone and face-to-face interview (193) results revealed that over two-thirds (70.2%) reported behavioural changes and 93.2% reported increased compassion for women who seek and providers who render termination of pregnancy. Behaviours supportive of the law were more likely among those initially undecided about their opinion of termination of pregnancy (p < 0.05) than among those initially opposed or supportive to it. When combined with supportive follow-up, three-day VC workshops may be effective at increasing CTOPA knowledge, changing attitudes and spurring advocacy behaviour to support reproductive choice. Research studies with pre-post and case-control designs are needed to confirm these preliminary results. (Afr J Reprod Health 20052005; 9[3]:89-99)Une évaluation retrospectine des modifications sur le plan de l'attitude, du comportement et de la connaissance parmi les divers groupes d'intéressés a été menée dans la Province Limpopo d'Afrique du Sud afin d'évaluer l'efficacité d'une série d'interventions de la clarification des valeurs (CV). Les résultats des interviews par téléphone et face à face (193) ont montré que les deux tiers (70,2%) ont signalé des modifications au niveau du comportement et que 93,2% ont signalé une hausse dans la compassion pour les femmes qui recherchent l'interruption de grossesse et les fournisseurs qui l'assurent. Les comportements qui soutenaient la loi étaient plus possibles chez celles qui, au départ, n'étaient pas sûres de leurs opinions à l'égard de l'interruption de grossesse (p<0,05) que chez celles qui dès le départ y étaient opposées ou qui la soutenaient. Si l'on combine les ateliers de trois jours de CV avec des suivis de soutien, les ateliers peuvent être efficaces pour augmenter la connaissance de CTOPA, la modification d'attitudes et peuvent motiver le plaidoyer de comportement en faveur du choix de reproduction. Il faut des recherches de modèle pre-poste et de cas témoin pour confirmer ces résultats préliminaries. (Rev Afr Santé Reprod2005; 9[3]:89-99)
 Building Alliances from Ambivalence: Evaluation of Abortion Values Clarification Workshops with Stak
作者  Ellen MH Mitchell, Karen Trueman, Mosotho Gabriel and Lindsey B Bickers Bock
作者单位  
期刊  African Journal of Reproductive Health 卷期  Vol. 9, No. 3, 2005 时间  2010.07.27
关键词  Abortion, behaviour, attitude, partnership, advocacy, Limpopo
摘要   Une évaluation retrospectine des modifications sur le plan de l'attitude, du comportement et de la connaissance parmi les divers groupes d'intéressés a été menée dans la Province Limpopo d'Afrique du Sud afin d'évaluer l'efficacité d'une série d'interventions de la clarification des valeurs (CV). Les résultats des interviews par téléphone et face à face (193) ont montré que les deux tiers (70,2%) ont signalé des modifications au niveau du comportement et que 93,2% ont signalé une hausse dans la compassion pour les femmes qui recherchent l'interruption de grossesse et les fournisseurs qui l'assurent. Les comportements qui soutenaient la loi étaient plus possibles chez celles qui, au départ, n'étaient pas sûres de leurs opinions à l'égard de l'interruption de grossesse (p<0,05) que chez celles qui dès le départ y étaient opposées ou qui la soutenaient. Si l'on combine les ateliers de trois jours de CV avec des suivis de soutien, les ateliers peuvent être efficaces pour augmenter la connaissance de CTOPA, la modification d'attitudes et peuvent motiver le plaidoyer de comportement en faveur du choix de reproduction. Il faut des recherches de modèle pre-poste et de cas témoin pour confirmer ces résultats préliminaries. (Rev Afr Santé Reprod2005; 9[3]:89-99)A retrospective evaluation of attitudinal, behavioural and knowledge change among diverse stakeholder groups was conducted in Limpopo Province of South Africa to assess the effectiveness of a series of values clarification (VC) interventions. Telephone and face-to-face interview (193) results revealed that over two-thirds (70.2%) reported behavioural changes and 93.2% reported increased compassion for women who seek and providers who render termination of pregnancy. Behaviours supportive of the law were more likely among those initially undecided about their opinion of termination of pregnancy (p < 0.05) than among those initially opposed or supportive to it. When combined with supportive follow-up, three-day VC workshops may be effective at increasing CTOPA knowledge, changing attitudes and spurring advocacy behaviour to support reproductive choice. Research studies with pre-post and case-control designs are needed to confirm these preliminary results. (Afr J Reprod Health 20052005; 9[3]:89-99)
 Breaking the Cycle of Unsafe Abortion in Africa
作者  Charlotte Hord and Merrill Wolf
作者单位  
期刊  African Journal of Reproductive Health 卷期  Vol. 8, No. 1, 2004 时间  2010.06.25
关键词  Unwanted pregnancy, abortion, reproductive health, women's health, women's rights, Africa, pregnancy termination, maternal mortality
摘要   Globally, nearly half of all maternal deaths from unsafe abortion occur in Africa. Abortion-related deaths and injuries are especially tragic, because when properly performed, abortion is one of the safest of all medical procedures. Factors contributing to this neglected public health crisis include inadequate health care resources and infrastructure, restrictive laws and policies, stigma, and women's lack of empowerment. Actions needed include making high quality abortion care more available and accessible, especially at the primary care level and to the full extent permitted by law. Others include removing medically unnecessary policy and legal restrictions on abortion; and better informing health care professionals, women and communities about the impact of unsafe abortion and the circumstances under which abortion can be legally obtained. (Afr J Reprod Health2004; 8[1]:29-36)Rupture du cycle de l'avortement à risqué.Dans le monde entier, presque la moitié de tous les décès maternels occasionés par l'avortement à risque se produisent en Afrique. Les décès et les blessures liés à l'avortement sont particulièrement tragiques, parce que quand il est bien fait, l'avortement est une de plus sûre de toutes les procédures médicales. Parmi les facteurs qui contribuent à cette crise négligée de santé publique sont les ressources et l'infrastructure de soin médical peu adéquates, les lois et les politiques restrictives, le stigmate et le manque de pouvoir économique chez les femmes. Parmi les mesures nécessaires sont la mise en place du soin d'avortement qui sera plus disponible et plus accessible, surtout au niveau du soin primaire et jusqu'au point autorisé par la loi. En plus, il faudra supprimer la politique médicale inutile et les restrictions légales sur l'avortement, mieux informer les professionnels de soin de santé, les femmes et les communautés sur l'impact de l'avortement à risque et sur les circonstances sous lesquelles l'avortement peut être légalement obtenu. (Rev Afr Santé Reprod2004; 8[1]:29-36)
 Comparative Study of Therapeutic Abortion Permissions in Central Clinical Department of Tehran Legal
作者  Bazmi, Shabnam;Behnoush, Behnam;Kiani, Mehrzad & Bazmi, Elham
作者单位  
期刊  Iranian Journal of Pediatrics 卷期  Vol. 18, No. 4, 2008 时间  2010.05.15
关键词  Therapeutic abortion; Fetal anomalies; Maternal disease; Abortion law; Illegal abortion
摘要   Objective:Before approval of therapeutic abortion law in parliament in 2003 there was severe restriction for abortion permissions In Iran. At that time "The Guidelines for Therapeutic Abortion" containing indications for abortion was presented by Legal Medicine Organization of Iran (LMO). Parliament and Islamic Consultative Assembly approved this in 2005. Methods:This study includes all cases referred to the clinical examination department of LMO in central region of Tehran to get permission for therapeutic abortion during one year before approval of therapeutic abortion law (first study from June 1999 to the end of May 2000) and after that (second study from early October 2006 to the end of September 2007). Information was collected via completion of pre-designated forms, the data of the two groups analyzed with SPSS software and compared. Findings:In the first study only 126 permissions were issued; 17% fetal disorders (major Thalassemia was the only considered case at that time) and 83% maternal indications were the reason to issue permission for abortion. In the second study in 85.36% of cases fetal disorders and in 14.63% maternal diseases were indications for abortion; the major fetal and maternal indications were: anencephaly and cardiovascular problems. Conclusion:This study shows that in spite of all efforts made so far to legalize therapeutic abortion, we have to keep working on the issue and perhaps some other diseases should be added to the list of indications in future.
 A Mathematical Analysis of Intravitreal Drug Transport
作者  Avtar, R. & Tandon, D
作者单位  
期刊  Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 卷期  Vol. 7, No. 1, 2008 时间  2010.04.25
关键词  Convective-diffusive transport, intravitreal injection, line-Jacobi iterative technique, release rate.
摘要   Purpose:The aim of our present work is the development of a quasi steady-state model for the distribution of intravitreally injected drugs and investigation of the effects of various model parameters on the drug distribution in normal and diseased eyes. Method:A simple mathematical model for the intravitreal transport of drugs was developed using Fick's law of diffusion, Darcy's law of convective flow, and Michaelis –Menten kinetics of metabolism. A Crank-Nicolson finite difference scheme of the equation describing the drug transport in the vitreous body was written, in which the radial and axial diffusive terms and convective terms of the equation were approximated by central differences, while the temporal terms were approximated by average of forward and backward time differences. A system of linear algebraic equations obtained from the Crank Nicolson finite difference scheme was solved by line Jacobi iterative scheme in which successive improved approximate results are obtained. Result:The model predicts that an increase in the metabolic (consumption) rate and drug release rate constant reduces the concentration of intravitreally injected drug at the centre of retina and along centreline of vitreous body. A significant increase in the drug concentration at the centre of retina and along the centreline of the vitreous body in the eye afflicted with glaucoma and retinal detachment is observed and the decay rate of drug concentration in these pathological states is higher than that in the normal eyes. Conclusion:The vitreous outflow as observed in the glaucomatous and/- or rhegmatogenous eyes may contribute to the transport of intravitreally injected drug in the vitreous body. The drug concentration in the vitreous body and at the centre of retina in such diseased eyes is higher than that in the normal eyes and the decay rate of drug concentration is significantly enhanced.
 International Security Through Environmental Challenges
作者  Mossalanejad, A.
作者单位  
期刊  International Journal of Environmental Research 卷期  Vol. 3, No. 3, 2009 时间  2010.04.25
关键词  Environment, Security, War, Energy, Law
摘要   During the 1960s, the relatively new approaches like environmental warfare and intentional environmental deterioration came in to the global security and strategic literature. Till now, through different conventional and unconventional wars, the governments have imposed intentional and unintentional adverse effects on the environment some of which are lasting for decades. The application of weapons, the destruction of structures and oil fields, fires, military transport movements and chemical spraying are all examples of the destroying impact war may have on the environment. Warfare is inherently destructive of sustainable development. States shall therefore respect international law providing protection for the environment in times of armed conflict and cooperate in its further development, as necessary. Several United Nations treaties have provisions to limit the environmental impacts of war or military activities. The daily generated waste that is discharged to the environment by the military troops all around the world, the imperfect disposal of different radioactive,chemical and microbial weaponry in different locations of the planet and even the space are among the numerous proved evidences of the theory that militaries are the main environmental threats directly - during the war time- and indirectly - during the peace time- Besides the war, the energy and its relative issues are among the most significant challenges threatening the global security. Most civil and between-countries conflicts all around the world have been occurred with direct or indirect relations to the energy resources. Providing a dependable source of .energy is considered as a major principle in the defensive potential of different countries. Increasing the level of dependency of different countries to each other, a global commercial energy market would result in a remarkable decrease in the number of conflicts caused by energy crisis. Shifting the global focal attention from the fossil fuels towards the renewable clean sources of energy would play a key role in preparing the required infrastructure for achieving the global energy and environmental security.
 Spectroscopic Studies of the Electron Donor-Acceptor Interaction of Chloroquine Phosphate with Chlor
作者  Ofokansi, KC;Omeje, EO & Emeneka, CO
作者单位  
期刊  Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 卷期  Vol. 8, No. 1, 2009 时间  2010.04.12
关键词  Spectroscopic studies, Electron Donor-Acceptor Interaction, Chloroquine phosphate, Chloranilic acid.
摘要   Purpose:The electron donor-acceptor interaction between drugs which act as electron donors and some electron-deficient compounds (π acceptors) has severally been utilized as an analytical tool for the quantitation and qualitative assessment of such drugs. The objective of this study, therefore, was to develop an assay procedure for dosage forms of chloroquine phosphate based on its reaction with chloranilic acid which resulted in the formation of a charge-transfer complex. Methods:The complex formation between chloroquine phosphate and chloranilc acid as evidenced by the instantaneous change in colour of a solution of chloranilic acid in dioxan from yellow to purple upon addition of a solution of chloroquine phosphate in chloroform was monitored spectrophotometrically to determine the wavelength of maximum absorption. The stoichiometry of the complex formed was evaluated using the Job’s continuous variation method while the thermodynamics of the complex was evaluated spectrophotometrically with the aid of the Benesi-Hildebrand plot. Results:Spectrophotometric absorption studies showed evidence of the formation of strongly bonded and highly stable charge-transfer complex between chloroquine phosphate and chloranilic acid in a 3:2 stoichiometry in non-aqueous medium. The transitions involved were detected at wavelengths longer than those of the individual pure substances in the visible region of the spectrum. Conformity with Beer’s law was evident over the concentration range 0.8 – 8.0 mg/100 ml of chloroquine phosphate; thus making it possible for an accurate quantitative determination of the drug. Conclusion:The studied complexation phenomenon formed a basis for the quantitative determination of both pure samples and individual dose units of chloroquine phosphate and is considered a simple, sensitive and precise analytical tool with high accuracy for routine analysis of chloroquine phosphate in developing countries where sophisticated analytical instruments may not be available.
 Spectroscopic Studies of the Electron Donor-Acceptor Interaction of Chloroquine Phosphate with Chlor
作者  Ofokansi, KC;Omeje, EO & Emeneka, CO
作者单位  
期刊  Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 卷期  Vol. 8, No. 1, 2009 时间  2010.04.12
关键词  Spectroscopic studies, Electron Donor-Acceptor Interaction, Chloroquine phosphate, Chloranilic acid.
摘要   Purpose:The electron donor-acceptor interaction between drugs which act as electron donors and some electron-deficient compounds (π acceptors) has severally been utilized as an analytical tool for the quantitation and qualitative assessment of such drugs. The objective of this study, therefore, was to develop an assay procedure for dosage forms of chloroquine phosphate based on its reaction with chloranilic acid which resulted in the formation of a charge-transfer complex. Methods:The complex formation between chloroquine phosphate and chloranilc acid as evidenced by the instantaneous change in colour of a solution of chloranilic acid in dioxan from yellow to purple upon addition of a solution of chloroquine phosphate in chloroform was monitored spectrophotometrically to determine the wavelength of maximum absorption. The stoichiometry of the complex formed was evaluated using the Job’s continuous variation method while the thermodynamics of the complex was evaluated spectrophotometrically with the aid of the Benesi-Hildebrand plot. Results:Spectrophotometric absorption studies showed evidence of the formation of strongly bonded and highly stable charge-transfer complex between chloroquine phosphate and chloranilic acid in a 3:2 stoichiometry in non-aqueous medium. The transitions involved were detected at wavelengths longer than those of the individual pure substances in the visible region of the spectrum. Conformity with Beer’s law was evident over the concentration range 0.8 – 8.0 mg/100 ml of chloroquine phosphate; thus making it possible for an accurate quantitative determination of the drug. Conclusion:The studied complexation phenomenon formed a basis for the quantitative determination of both pure samples and individual dose units of chloroquine phosphate and is considered a simple, sensitive and precise analytical tool with high accuracy for routine analysis of chloroquine phosphate in developing countries where sophisticated analytical instruments may not be available.
 Spectroscopic Studies of the Electron Donor-Acceptor Interaction of Chloroquine Phosphate with Chlor
作者  Ofokansi, KC;Omeje, EO & Emeneka, CO
作者单位  
期刊  Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 卷期  Vol. 8, No. 1, 2009 时间  2010.04.12
关键词  Spectroscopic studies, Electron Donor-Acceptor Interaction, Chloroquine phosphate, Chloranilic acid.
摘要   Purpose:The electron donor-acceptor interaction between drugs which act as electron donors and some electron-deficient compounds (π acceptors) has severally been utilized as an analytical tool for the quantitation and qualitative assessment of such drugs. The objective of this study, therefore, was to develop an assay procedure for dosage forms of chloroquine phosphate based on its reaction with chloranilic acid which resulted in the formation of a charge-transfer complex. Methods:The complex formation between chloroquine phosphate and chloranilc acid as evidenced by the instantaneous change in colour of a solution of chloranilic acid in dioxan from yellow to purple upon addition of a solution of chloroquine phosphate in chloroform was monitored spectrophotometrically to determine the wavelength of maximum absorption. The stoichiometry of the complex formed was evaluated using the Job’s continuous variation method while the thermodynamics of the complex was evaluated spectrophotometrically with the aid of the Benesi-Hildebrand plot. Results:Spectrophotometric absorption studies showed evidence of the formation of strongly bonded and highly stable charge-transfer complex between chloroquine phosphate and chloranilic acid in a 3:2 stoichiometry in non-aqueous medium. The transitions involved were detected at wavelengths longer than those of the individual pure substances in the visible region of the spectrum. Conformity with Beer’s law was evident over the concentration range 0.8 – 8.0 mg/100 ml of chloroquine phosphate; thus making it possible for an accurate quantitative determination of the drug. Conclusion:The studied complexation phenomenon formed a basis for the quantitative determination of both pure samples and individual dose units of chloroquine phosphate and is considered a simple, sensitive and precise analytical tool with high accuracy for routine analysis of chloroquine phosphate in developing countries where sophisticated analytical instruments may not be available.
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