Physics
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 Causes, Magnitude and Management of Burns in Under-Fives in District Hospitals in Dar Es Salaam, Tan
作者  Justin-Temu, M.;Rimoy, G.;Premji, Z. & Matemu, G.
作者单位  
期刊  East African Journal of Public Health 卷期  Vol. 5, No. 1, 2008 时间  2011.01.20
关键词  Burns, Under-fives, Cause, Management
摘要   Objectives:To determine the causes, magnitude and management of burns in children under five years of age who were admitted in the district hospitals of Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania. Methods:In this study, a total of 204 under fives were enrolled. Questionnaires were used to elicit if the parent/caretaker had the knowledge of the cause of the burns, what was done immediately after burn injury, first aid given immediately after burn, source of the knowledge of first aid and when the child was taken to the hospital. Also the questionnaire was cited with data on the management of burns in the hospitals through observation and checking the treatment files. Results:Forty nine percent were males while 50.5% were females. Most of the children (54.9%) were aged between 1-2 years. 78.4 % had scalds while 21.6 % had flame burns. No children w ere found to have burns caused by chemicals or electricity. Most of the burns (97.5%) occurred accidentally, although some (2.5%) were intentional. 68.6 % of these burn injuries occurred in the kitchen. Immediately after burn 87.3% of the children had first aid applied on their wounds while 12.7% didn’t apply anything. Of the agents used, honey was the most used (32.8%) followed by cold water (16.7%). The source of knowledge on these agents was from relatives and friends (72.5%), schools (7%), media (6%) and medical personnel (14%). The study further revealed that analgesics, intravenous fluids, antiseptics and antibiotics were the drugs used for treatment of burns in the hospital and that there was no specialized unit for burns in the hospitals. Conclusions: Causes of childhood burns are largely preventable requiring active social/medical education and public enlighten campaigns on the various methods of prevention. The government to see to it that hospitals have specialized units for managing burn cases and also the socio-economic status of its people be improved.
 DESIGNING Mg-Sn-Mn ALLOY BASED ON CRYSTALLOGRAPHY OF PHASE TRANSFORMATION
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期刊  Acta Metallurgica Sinica(English Letters) 卷期  2010, 23(6 时间  2011.01.10
关键词  镁合金设计, 相变晶体学, 析出相形貌,位向关系,
摘要  
 THERMODYNAMICS OF MULTICOMPONENT SYSTEMS WITH CONSTANT PARTIAL MOLAR QUANTITY■_0——Thermodynami
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期刊  Acta Metallurgica Sinica(English Letters) 卷期  2009, 25(02 时间  2011.01.10
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摘要  
 PREDICTION OF THERMODYNAMICS DATA OF TERNARV AND QUAfERNARY MOLTEN ALLOYS WITH NRTL EQUATION
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作者单位  
期刊  Acta Metallurgica Sinica(English Letters) 卷期  1999, 12(3 时间  2011.01.10
关键词  NRTL equation, molten alloy, activity coefficient,
摘要  
 THERMODYNAMICS OF MARTENSITIC TRANSFORMATION IN Fe-Mn-C AND Fe-Ni-C ALLOYS
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作者单位  
期刊  Acta Metallurgica Sinica(English Letters) 卷期  1990, 3(1 时间  2011.01.10
关键词  Fe-Mn-C alloy,Fe-Ni-C alloy,martensitic transformation,
摘要  
 Energy efficiency and environmental impact of biogas utilization in landfills
作者  Karapidakis, E.S.;Tsave, A.A.;Soupios, P.M. & Katsigiannis, Y.A.
作者单位  
期刊  International Journal of Environment Science and Technology 卷期  Vol. 7, No. 3, 2010 时间  2010.11.23
关键词  Electrical power; Energy recovery; Landfill biogas; Methane
摘要   This study investigates the utilization of landfill biogas as a fuel for electrical power generation. Landfills can be regarded as conversion biogas plants to electricity, not only covering internal consumptions of the facility but contributing in the power grid as well. A landfill gas plant consists of a recovery and a production system. The recovery of landfill gas is an area of vital interest since it combines both alternative energy production and reduction of environmental impact through reduction of methane and carbon dioxide, two of the main greenhouse gases emissions. This study follows two main objectives. First, to determine whether active extraction of landfill gas in the examined municipal solid waste sites would produce adequate electric power for utilisation and grid connection and second, to estimate the reduction of sequential greenhouse gases emissions. However, in order to optimize the designing of a plant fed by biogas, it is necessary to quantify biogas production over several years. The investigation results of energy efficiency and environmental impact of biogas utilization in landfills are considering satisfactory enough both in electric energy production and in contribution to greenhouse gases mitigation.
 WU XINMOU(OU SING-MO): IN COMMEMORATION OF THE 100thANNIVERSARY OF HIS BIRTH
作者  李文林|陆柱家 LI Wen-Lin, LIU Zhu-Jia
作者单位  
期刊  数学物理学报 卷期  1981 5 (2) 时间  2010.11.20
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摘要   Wu Xinmou (Ou Sing-mo) was born in Jiangyin, a peaceful Chinese town in Jiangsu Province by the Yangtze River, on April 14 of 1910, his father was a teacher of history at a local school. Wu Xinmou received his school education in home town and entered the department of mathematics of National Central University in Nanjing where he was taught higher algebra, geometry and analysis by Professor He Lu, a French returned scholar. Having graduated from the Central University in 1932, Wu Xinmou taught at the department of mathematics as an assistant professor in Tsinghua University from 1934 to 1937, and became interested in differential equations under the influence of Professor Xiong Qinglai (Hiong King-lai), who owned French Doctorat d'Etat and chaired the department from 1928 to 1937. Wu was sent to France at state expense in 1937, where he took at first H. Villat's class in viscous fluid mechanics and changed eventually his major to partial differential equations supervised by J. Hadamard. During his stay in France, as well as intensive academic researches, Wu Xinmou took part in the patriotic activities against Japanese invasion led by Chinese Communist Party, in particular he was editor of the journal Anti-Japanese News from Homeland since 1939. Wu joined Chinese Communist Party as a member of the branch sojourned in France led by Deng Fa and Liu Ning-Yi in 1945.
 A BLOW-UP CRITERION FOR COMPRESSIBLE VISCOUS HEAT-CONDUCTIVE FLOWS
作者  江松|欧耀彬 JIANG Song, OU Yao-Bin
作者单位  
期刊  数学物理学报 卷期  1981 5 (2) 时间  2010.11.20
关键词  blow-up criteria
摘要   We study an initial boundary value problem for the Navier-Stokes equations of compressible viscous heat-conductive fluids in a 2-D periodic domain or the unit square domain. We establish a blow-up criterion for the local strong solutions in terms of the gradient of the velocity only, which coincides with the famous Beale-Kato-Majda criterion for ideal incompressible flows.
 REVIEW ARTICLE - STEM CELLS AND MYOCARDIAL REGENERATION
作者  E. Michael Molnar
作者单位  
期刊  European Journal of General Medicine 卷期  Vol. 1, No. 4, 2004 时间  2010.09.01
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摘要   Cardiomyocytes lose their ability to proliferate after birth and so heart muscle fibers cannot regenerate. For that reason myocardial injury, such as myocardial infarction (MI), heals by replacement of contractile heart muscle fibers by fibrotic tissue scar, which not only cannot participate in pumping of blood, it does not even contribute to passive mechanics of heart. Massive loss of cardiomyocytes after MI is a common cause of heart failure (HF), which is a consequence of many other cardiovascular diseases, and serious public health problem.
 Home Management of Diarrhea among Underfives in a Rural Community in Kenya: Household Perceptions an
作者  Othero, Doreen M.;Orago, Alloys S.S.;Groenewegen, Ted;Kaseje, Dan O. & Otengah, P.A
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期刊  East African Journal of Public Health 卷期  Vol. 5, No. 3, 2008 时间  2010.08.20
关键词  
摘要   Introduction:Diarrheal disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among under-fives especially in rural and peri-urban communities in developing countries. Home management of diarrhea is one of the key household practices targeted for enhancement in the Community Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (C-IMCI) strategy. Objective:The aim of this study was to determine the perceptions of mothers/caregivers regarding the causes of diarrhea among under-fives and how it was managed in the home before seeking help from Community Health Workers or health facilities. Design:A household longitudinal study was conducted in Nyando district, Kenya in 2004-2006 adopting both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Subjects: A total of 927 mothers/caregivers of under-fives participated in the study. Main outcome measures:Perceived causes of childhood diarrhoea, action taken during diarrhea, fluid intake, recognition of signs of dehydration, feeding during convalescence, adherence to treatment and advice. Results:Majority of the respondents 807(87.1%) reported that their children had suffered from diarrhea within the last 2 weeks before commencement of the study. Diarrhea was found to contribute to 48% of child mortality in the study area. Perceived causes of diarrhea were:unclean water 524(55.6%), contaminated food 508(54.9%), bad eye 464 (50.0%), false teeth 423(45.6%) and breast milk 331(35.8%). More than 70% of mothers decreased fluid intake during diarrhea episodes. The mothers perceived wheat flour, rice water and selected herbs as anti-diarrheal agents. During illness, 239(27.8%) of the children were reported not to have drunk any fluids at all, 487(52.5%) drunk much less and only 93(10.0%) were reported to have drunk more than usual. A significant 831(89.6%) withheld milk including breast milk with the notion that it enhanced diarrhea. Conclusion:Based on these findings, there is need to develop and implement interactive communication strategies for the health workers and mothers to address perceptions and misconceptions and facilitate positive change in the household practice on management of diarrhea among under-fives.
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