Psychology
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 A Review of the Implications of Prospect Theory for Natural Hazards and Disaster Planning
作者  Asgary, A. & Levy, J.
作者单位  
期刊  International Journal of Environmental Research 卷期  Vol. 3, No. 3, 2009 时间  2010.05.20
关键词  Prospect theory, Environmental hazards, Disaster planning, Planning theory, Decision making, Risk,Uncertainty
摘要   Traditional approaches for environmental hazards and disaster planning under conditions of risk and uncertainty are discussed, including normative expected utility theory, “satisificing”, and robustness analyses. Prospect theory, a descriptive technique with roots in psychology, has emerged as an alternative theory of decision making under risk and uncertainty to utility theory and other classic approaches. Over the past quarter century Prospect theory has been increasingly used in various disciplines such as political science, public health, engineering, economics, insurance, and business. This paper aims to introduce and discuss some of the potential implications of prospect theory for environmental hazards and disaster planning theory and practice. It is argued that prospect theory can significantly enhance environmental hazards and disaster planning theory and practice, particularly for decision making under uncertainty. Several practical examples are provided to illustrate the strengths of this versatile method.
 Comparison of cognition abilities between groups of children with specific learning disability havin
作者  Karande Sunil, Sawant S, Kulkarni M, Galvankar P, Sholapurwala R
作者单位  
期刊  Indian Journal of Medical Sciences 卷期  Vol. 59, No. 3, 2005 时间  2010.04.08
关键词  Cognition, Dyslexia, Intelligence, Remedial teaching, Schools
摘要   BACKGROUND:Specific learning disabilities (SpLD) viz. dyslexia, dysgraphia and dyscalculia are an important cause of academic underachievement. AIMS:To assess whether cognition abilities vary in children with SpLD having different grades of nonverbal intelligence. SETTING:Government recognized clinic in a medical college. DESIGN:Cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS AND METHODS:Ninety-five children with SpLD (aged 9-14 years) were assessed. An academic achievement of two years below the actual grade placement on educational assessment with a Curriculum-Based test was considered diagnostic of SpLD. On basis of their nonverbal Intelligence Quotient (IQ) scores obtained on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children test, the study children were divided into three groups: (i) average-nonverbal intelligence group (IQ 90-109), (ii) bright normal-nonverbal intelligence group (IQ 110-119), and (iii) superior-nonverbal intelligence group (IQ 120-129). A battery of 13 Cognition Function tests (CFTs) devised by Jnana Prabodhini′s Institute of Psychology, Pune based on Guilford′s Structure of Intellect Model was administered individually on each child in the four areas of information viz. figural, symbolic, semantic and behavioral. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED:The mean CFTs scores obtained in the four areas of information were calculated for each of the three groups and compared using one-way analysis of variance test. A P value < 0.05 was to be considered statistically significant. RESULTS:There were no statistically significant differences between their mean CFTs scores in any of the four areas of information. CONCLUSIONS:Cognition abilities are similar in children with SpLD having average, bright-normal and superior nonverbal intelligence.
 Comparison of cognition abilities between groups of children with specific learning disability havin
作者  Karande Sunil, Sawant S, Kulkarni M, Galvankar P, Sholapurwala R
作者单位  
期刊  Indian Journal of Medical Sciences 卷期  Vol. 59, No. 3, 2005 时间  2010.04.08
关键词  Cognition, Dyslexia, Intelligence, Remedial teaching, Schools
摘要   BACKGROUND:Specific learning disabilities (SpLD) viz. dyslexia, dysgraphia and dyscalculia are an important cause of academic underachievement. AIMS:To assess whether cognition abilities vary in children with SpLD having different grades of nonverbal intelligence. SETTING:Government recognized clinic in a medical college. DESIGN:Cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS AND METHODS:Ninety-five children with SpLD (aged 9-14 years) were assessed. An academic achievement of two years below the actual grade placement on educational assessment with a Curriculum-Based test was considered diagnostic of SpLD. On basis of their nonverbal Intelligence Quotient (IQ) scores obtained on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children test, the study children were divided into three groups: (i) average-nonverbal intelligence group (IQ 90-109), (ii) bright normal-nonverbal intelligence group (IQ 110-119), and (iii) superior-nonverbal intelligence group (IQ 120-129). A battery of 13 Cognition Function tests (CFTs) devised by Jnana Prabodhini′s Institute of Psychology, Pune based on Guilford′s Structure of Intellect Model was administered individually on each child in the four areas of information viz. figural, symbolic, semantic and behavioral. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED:The mean CFTs scores obtained in the four areas of information were calculated for each of the three groups and compared using one-way analysis of variance test. A P value < 0.05 was to be considered statistically significant. RESULTS:There were no statistically significant differences between their mean CFTs scores in any of the four areas of information. CONCLUSIONS:Cognition abilities are similar in children with SpLD having average, bright-normal and superior nonverbal intelligence.
 Comparison of cognition abilities between groups of children with specific learning disability havin
作者  Karande Sunil, Sawant S, Kulkarni M, Galvankar P, Sholapurwala R
作者单位  
期刊  Indian Journal of Medical Sciences 卷期  Vol. 59, No. 3, 2005 时间  2010.04.08
关键词  Cognition, Dyslexia, Intelligence, Remedial teaching, Schools
摘要   BACKGROUND:Specific learning disabilities (SpLD) viz. dyslexia, dysgraphia and dyscalculia are an important cause of academic underachievement. AIMS:To assess whether cognition abilities vary in children with SpLD having different grades of nonverbal intelligence. SETTING:Government recognized clinic in a medical college. DESIGN:Cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS AND METHODS:Ninety-five children with SpLD (aged 9-14 years) were assessed. An academic achievement of two years below the actual grade placement on educational assessment with a Curriculum-Based test was considered diagnostic of SpLD. On basis of their nonverbal Intelligence Quotient (IQ) scores obtained on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children test, the study children were divided into three groups: (i) average-nonverbal intelligence group (IQ 90-109), (ii) bright normal-nonverbal intelligence group (IQ 110-119), and (iii) superior-nonverbal intelligence group (IQ 120-129). A battery of 13 Cognition Function tests (CFTs) devised by Jnana Prabodhini′s Institute of Psychology, Pune based on Guilford′s Structure of Intellect Model was administered individually on each child in the four areas of information viz. figural, symbolic, semantic and behavioral. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED:The mean CFTs scores obtained in the four areas of information were calculated for each of the three groups and compared using one-way analysis of variance test. A P value < 0.05 was to be considered statistically significant. RESULTS:There were no statistically significant differences between their mean CFTs scores in any of the four areas of information. CONCLUSIONS:Cognition abilities are similar in children with SpLD having average, bright-normal and superior nonverbal intelligence.
 Penile agenesis: Report on 8 Cases and Review of Literature
作者  Mirshemirani, Alireza;Khaleghnejad, Ahmad;Pourang, Hoshang;Sadeghian, Naser;Rouzrokh, Mohsen & Salehpour, Shadab
作者单位  
期刊  Iranian Journal of Pediatrics 卷期  Vol. 19, No. 2, 2009 时间  2009.10.10
关键词  Aphallia, penile agenesis, reconstruction, Ambiguous genitalia
摘要   Background:Penile agenesis (PA) is an extremely rare anomaly with profound urological and psychological consequences. The opening of the urethra could be either over the pubis or at any point on perineum or most frequently in anterior wall of the rectum. The aim of treatment is an early female gender assignment and feminizing reconstruction of the perineum. Case(s) Presentation:We report 8 cases of penile agenesis with urination and defecation through the rectum, apparently normal scrotum, bilateral descended testis, normally located anus, urethral opening in anus, 46xy karyotype and associated anomalies. In 2 cases parents refused any surgical interventions, but in 6 cases we did perform different operations (transforming five cases to females and one case to male gender). Conclusion:We recommend feminizing operations in newborns or infants, but in older patients, regarding the child's psychology, it is advised to perform masculinizing operations, and finally, no surgical intervention should be undertaken before counseling the parents.
 Comparison of cognition abilities between groups of children with specific learning disability havin
作者  Karande Sunil, Sawant S, Kulkarni M, Galvankar P, Sholapurwala R
作者单位  
期刊  Indian Journal of Medical Sciences 卷期  Vol. 59, No. 3, 2005 时间  2009.10.10
关键词  Cognition, Dyslexia, Intelligence, Remedial teaching, Schools
摘要   BACKGROUND:Specific learning disabilities (SpLD) viz. dyslexia, dysgraphia and dyscalculia are an important cause of academic underachievement. AIMS:To assess whether cognition abilities vary in children with SpLD having different grades of nonverbal intelligence. SETTING:Government recognized clinic in a medical college. DESIGN:Cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS AND METHODS:Ninety-five children with SpLD (aged 9-14 years) were assessed. An academic achievement of two years below the actual grade placement on educational assessment with a Curriculum-Based test was considered diagnostic of SpLD. On basis of their nonverbal Intelligence Quotient (IQ) scores obtained on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children test, the study children were divided into three groups: (i) average-nonverbal intelligence group (IQ 90-109), (ii) bright normal-nonverbal intelligence group (IQ 110-119), and (iii) superior-nonverbal intelligence group (IQ 120-129). A battery of 13 Cognition Function tests (CFTs) devised by Jnana Prabodhini′s Institute of Psychology, Pune based on Guilford′s Structure of Intellect Model was administered individually on each child in the four areas of information viz. figural, symbolic, semantic and behavioral. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED:The mean CFTs scores obtained in the four areas of information were calculated for each of the three groups and compared using one-way analysis of variance test. A P value < 0.05 was to be considered statistically significant. RESULTS:There were no statistically significant differences between their mean CFTs scores in any of the four areas of information. CONCLUSIONS:Cognition abilities are similar in children with SpLD having average, bright-normal and superior nonverbal intelligence.
 Methods of intervention in reducing the psychosocial impact while dealing with cancer as a disease:
作者  Trivedi, S.;Petera, J.;Fillip, S. & Hrstka, Z.
作者单位  
期刊  Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics 卷期  Vol. 3, No. 4, 2007 时间  2009.04.15
关键词  Cancer, psychosocial impact, psychological intervention, role of psychology for clinical benefit
摘要   Aims and Objective:We searched for the clinically relevant suggestions, recommendations and findings amongst the papers on psycho oncology. The term clinically relevant for us meant ′practical and implemental modes of intervention that contribute but would not affect or interfere with the normal functioning of the present system and treatment modality of the patients.′ Our intention was to use the available information for the benefit of our patients. We also searched for the data that would prove the significance of these methods. In most parts of the world it is not possible to involve a psychologist at every level of cancer care. Based on the findings, we intend to carry out our own project for the psychosocial intervention in cancer patients and make suggestions that could be adopted even by those who have little or no experience in psychology. Conclusion:The field of psycho oncology is a relatively new and evolving subspecialty of oncology and psychology at the same time. Current data and papers, which would make simple and implemental modes of intervention at psychosocial level, are limited. There is a dire necessity of solid data and list of suggestion to the specialists, non-specialists and those who take care of the cancer patients, to enhance the care they provide to the cancer patients.
 Methods of intervention in reducing the psychosocial impact while dealing with cancer as a disease:
作者  Trivedi, S.;Petera, J.;Fillip, S. & Hrstka, Z.
作者单位  
期刊  Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics 卷期  Vol. 3, No. 4, 2007 时间  2009.04.15
关键词  Cancer, psychosocial impact, psychological intervention, role of psychology for clinical benefit
摘要   Aims and Objective:We searched for the clinically relevant suggestions, recommendations and findings amongst the papers on psycho oncology. The term clinically relevant for us meant ′practical and implemental modes of intervention that contribute but would not affect or interfere with the normal functioning of the present system and treatment modality of the patients.′ Our intention was to use the available information for the benefit of our patients. We also searched for the data that would prove the significance of these methods. In most parts of the world it is not possible to involve a psychologist at every level of cancer care. Based on the findings, we intend to carry out our own project for the psychosocial intervention in cancer patients and make suggestions that could be adopted even by those who have little or no experience in psychology. Conclusion:The field of psycho oncology is a relatively new and evolving subspecialty of oncology and psychology at the same time. Current data and papers, which would make simple and implemental modes of intervention at psychosocial level, are limited. There is a dire necessity of solid data and list of suggestion to the specialists, non-specialists and those who take care of the cancer patients, to enhance the care they provide to the cancer patients.
 Psychological consequences derived during process of human hand allograft
作者  ZHU Lijun 朱立军, PEI Guoxian 裴国献, GU Liqiang 顾立强, HONG Jun 洪军
作者单位  
期刊  Chinese Medical Journal 卷期  2002;115(11 时间  
关键词  limb·allograft·psychology
摘要   ObjectiveTo study the psychology and the treatment during the process of hand allograft. MethodsThe patients were interviewed to evaluate their states of mind and their abilities to manage stress during the selection of patients. The psychology of the two patients were trained before the operation and managed accordingly afterwards. ResultsOne of 12 candidates was found to be unsuitable for the transplantation because of psychiatric problems. One week postoperatively, the two patients were anxious, lacked patience and were afraid of seeing the long-awaited grafted hand. After 1 week, the patients began to accept the new hand, with full acceptance of the hand 1 month later. With the recovery of hand sensation 4 to 5 months after the operation, the patients regarded the hand as their own. ConclusionPsychological problems exist during preoperative selection of patients and postoperative rehabilitation, requiring psychologists in the hand transplantation team.
 Comparison of cognition abilities between groups of children with specific learning disability havin
作者  Karande Sunil, Sawant S, Kulkarni M, Galvankar P, Sholapurwala R
作者单位  
期刊  Indian Journal of Medical Sciences 卷期  Vol. 59, No. 3, 2005 时间  
关键词  Cognition, Dyslexia, Intelligence, Remedial teaching, Schools
摘要   BACKGROUND:Specific learning disabilities (SpLD) viz. dyslexia, dysgraphia and dyscalculia are an important cause of academic underachievement. AIMS:To assess whether cognition abilities vary in children with SpLD having different grades of nonverbal intelligence. SETTING:Government recognized clinic in a medical college. DESIGN:Cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS AND METHODS:Ninety-five children with SpLD (aged 9-14 years) were assessed. An academic achievement of two years below the actual grade placement on educational assessment with a Curriculum-Based test was considered diagnostic of SpLD. On basis of their nonverbal Intelligence Quotient (IQ) scores obtained on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children test, the study children were divided into three groups: (i) average-nonverbal intelligence group (IQ 90-109), (ii) bright normal-nonverbal intelligence group (IQ 110-119), and (iii) superior-nonverbal intelligence group (IQ 120-129). A battery of 13 Cognition Function tests (CFTs) devised by Jnana Prabodhini′s Institute of Psychology, Pune based on Guilford′s Structure of Intellect Model was administered individually on each child in the four areas of information viz. figural, symbolic, semantic and behavioral. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED:The mean CFTs scores obtained in the four areas of information were calculated for each of the three groups and compared using one-way analysis of variance test. A P value < 0.05 was to be considered statistically significant. RESULTS:There were no statistically significant differences between their mean CFTs scores in any of the four areas of information. CONCLUSIONS:Cognition abilities are similar in children with SpLD having average, bright-normal and superior nonverbal intelligence.
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