Social Sciences
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 EFFECT OF CARBON MIGRATION ON CREEP PROPERTIES OF Cr5Mo DISSIMILAR WELDED JOINTS WITH Ni-BASED AND A
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期刊  Acta Metallurgica Sinica(English Letters) 卷期  2004, 17(4 时间  2011.01.10
关键词  dissimilar welded joint,carbon imgration,creep rupture ,
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 EVOLUTION OF MICROSTRUCTURE OF Sn-Ag-Cu LEAD-FREE FLIP CHIP SOLDER JOINTS DURING AGING PROCESS
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期刊  Acta Metallurgica Sinica(English Letters) 卷期  2006, 19(4 时间  2011.01.10
关键词  lead free solder,flip chip,aging ,
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 A STUDY ON AGING TREATMENTS FOR ALLOY 2195
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期刊  Acta Metallurgica Sinica(English Letters) 卷期  1998, 11(1 时间  2011.01.10
关键词  Al alloy 2195,aging, mechanical property, microstructure,
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 EFFECT OF DYNAMIC STRAIN AGING ON LOW CYCLE FATIGUE BEHAVIOUR OF 18-8 AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL
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期刊  Acta Metallurgica Sinica(English Letters) 卷期  1993, 6(6 时间  2011.01.10
关键词  18-8 austenitic stainless steel,dynamic strain aging,low cycle fatigue,
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 REVIEW ARTICLE - OLFACTORY DYSFUNCTION IN NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES
作者  M. Hakan Özdener, Nancy E. Rawson
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期刊  European Journal of General Medicine 卷期  Vol. 1, No. 3, 2004 时间  2010.12.20
关键词  Olfactory dysfunction, neurodegenerative diseases
摘要   Interest in olfactory dysfunction has increased tremendously in the past decade, in part due to observations that chemosensory impairment is an early symptom of many neurodegenerative diseases. Several features of the olfactory system make it particularly relevant to understanding neurodegeneration/regeneration. First, while being vulnerable to environmental and infectious exposure, the olfactory system has the unique property of ongoing replacement of the olfactory sensory neurons under physiological conditions and following injury. Second, the receptor neurons residing in the periphery are developmentally related to the central nervous system, yet are accessible relatively noninvasively via biopsy from living subjects. Third, olfactory performance can easily be tested in a variety of ways that provide insight into the function of brain areas involved in detection, identification and memory. In addition to providing insights into the etiology or diagnosis of disease, a better understanding of olfactory neurobiology is needed to develop ways to treat olfactory dysfunction, which affects both quality of life and personal safety. At least 3,000,000 Americans suffer from chemosensory disorders and that is likely to grow as the aging segment of the population increases. Olfactory impairment represents a danger to the individuals resulting from inability to detect hazards as natural gas and spoiled food and threatens quality of life through the loss of enjoyment of foods and fragrances. The neurological systems responsible for olfactory function represent perhaps the most diverse, complex and adaptable components of the nervous system. Losses in olfaction result from changes at both the anatomical and molecular level. This loss can result from aging, toxins, infectious agents, environmental factors and a variety of diseases. Understanding the neurobiology of this sensory system may help us to develop new diagnostic measures and treatments for neurodegenerative disease as well as improving the quality of life for millions of people who are handicapped by the inability to detect the flavors and fragrances around them.
 Role of Governmental and Non-Governmental Organizations in Mitigation of Stigma and Discrimination A
作者  Odindo, Margaret A. & Mwanthi, Mutuku A.
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期刊  East African Journal of Public Health 卷期  Vol. 5, No. 1, 2008 时间  2010.09.20
关键词  Government, non-governmental organizations, stigma and discrimination, HIV/AIDS, Persons Living with HIV/AIDS.
摘要   Objective:This study assessed the role of governmental and non-governmental organizations in mitigation of stigma and discrimination among people infected and affected by HIV/AIDS in informal settlements of Kibera. Methods:This was a descriptive cross-sectional study and used a multi stage stratified sampling method. The study was conducted in Kibera, an informal settlement with a population of over one million people which makes it the largest slum not only in Kenya but in sub-Saharan Africa. The study targeted infected individuals, non-infected community members, managers of the organizations implementing HIV/AIDS programmes and service providers. In the process 1331 households were interviewed using qualitative and quantitative data collection instruments. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Nudist 4 packages were used to analyze the quantitative and qualitative data respectively. Results:More than 61% of the respondents had patients in their households. Fifty five percent (55%) of the households received assistance from governmental and non-governmental organizations in taking care of the sick. Services provided included awareness, outreach, counseling, testing, treatment, advocacy, home based care, assistance to the orphans and legal issues. About 90% of the respondents perceived health education, counseling services and formation of post counseling support groups to combat stigma and discrimination to be helpful. Conclusion:Stigma and discrimination affects the rights of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). Such stigmatization and discrimination goes beyond and affects those who care for the PLWHAs, and remains the biggest impediment in the fight against HIV/AIDS in Kibera. Governmental and non-governmental organizations continue to provide key services in the mitigation of stigma and discrimination in Kibera. However, personal testimonies by PLWHAs showed that HIV positive persons still suffer from stigma and discrimination. Approximately 43% of the study population experienced stigma and discrimination.
 INTRADURAL DISC HERNIATION A case report and review of the literature
作者  Nebi Yilmaz, Nejmi Kiymaz, Ömer Etlik, Çigdem Mumcu
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期刊  European Journal of General Medicine 卷期  Vol. 2, No. 4, 2005 时间  2010.09.20
关键词  Intradural disc, surgery, cauda equina syndrome
摘要   Intradural disc herniation (IDH) is a rare pathology. Intradural disc herniations comprise 0.26-0.30% of all herniated discs. The preoperative knowledge of an intradural herniation is important because it has an influence on the operative strategy. A 55-year-old man suffered from decrease in the motor function of the lower extremities and urinary incontinence. Noncontrast MRI exam showed the intradural disc with caudal migration of an excluded fragment at the L3-4 level. At surgery, the L3 and L4 laminas were removed and after dura had been openned, a nucleus pulposus was seen which compressed the conus medullaris to the right and left of the spinal canal. Every neurosurgeuon involved in spinal surgery must be aware of this rare patology which, when overseen during the intervention, could have disastrous consequences for the patient.
 Social, Economic and Demographic Determinants of Sexual Risk Behaviors among Men in Rural Malawi: A
作者  Paz Soldan, Valerie A.;deGraft-Johnson, Joseph E.;Bisika, Thomas & Tsui, Amy O.
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期刊  African Journal of Reproductive Health 卷期  Vol. 11, No. 2, 2007 时间  2010.08.23
关键词  sexual risk behaviors, condom use, occupation, mobility, determinants, sub-Saharan Africa
摘要   Data from a survey of 715 men aged 20-44 from Mangochi district of Malawi were used to assess the sociodemographic and economic determinants of (1) having ever paid for sex, (2) total number of sex partners in the past year, and (3) having ever used condoms. Different individual characteristics were associated with each of these sexual behaviors. Polygamy and being a fisherman who has left home for over a month in the past year for work reasons were both positively associated with having ever paid for sex, whereas those with more household wealth were less likely to have paid for sex. The influence of education, age, age at sexual initiation, Muslim religion, polygamy, occupation, and having ever paid for sex on total number of sexual partners in the past year are all evident. Finally, secondary education, work-related migration, and having ever paid for sex were significantly associated with having used condoms.Les déterminants sociaux, économiques et démographiques des comportements à risque chez les homes au Malawi rural: Une étude au niveau du districtA l'aide des données recueillies d'une enquête de 715 hommes âgés de 20-44 ans du district de Mangochi au Malawi, nous avons évalué les déterminants socio-démographiques et économiques 1) d'avoir jamais payé pour les rapports sexuel 2) du nombre de partenaires sexuel au cours de l'année passée et 3) d'avoir jamais utilisé les préservatifs. De différentes caractéristiques individuelles ont été liées à chacun de ces comportements sexuels. La polygamie et le fait d'être un pêcheur qui a quitté le foyer conjugal pour plus d'un mois au cours de l'année passée à cause du travail étaient, tous les deux, liés au fait d'avoir jamais payé pour les rapports sexuels, alors que ceux qui possédaient de la richesse familiale avaient moins la possibilité de payer pour les rapports sexuels. L'influence de l'éducation, de l'âge, de l'âge au moment de l'initiation sexuelle, la religion islamique, la polygamie, le métier et d'avoir jamais payé pour un rapport sexuel, le nombre total des partenaires sexuels au cours de l'année passée, est toute évidente. Enfin, l'éducation secondaire, la migration liée au travail et le fait d'avoir jamais payer pour un rapport sexuel ont été significativement liés au fait d'avoir jamais utilisé les préservatif.
 Dispersal of Sorghum and the Role of Genetic Drift
作者  Dahlberg, J.
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期刊  African Crop Science Journal 卷期  Vol. 3, No. 2, 1995 时间  2010.08.11
关键词  Evolution, spread, Sorghum bicolorEvolution, dispersion, Sorghum bicolor
摘要   Sorghum, family Graminae, and tribe Andropogoneae, evolved and slowly spread primarily within the confines of the African subcontinent. From the four major forces of evolution, selection, mutation, random genetic drift and migration, arose the wild representatives of S. bicolor subspecies verticilliflorum that are still present today. Though humans appeared on the scene about 2 millions years ago, their role in the evolution of sorghum was probably limited to that of a physical agent of dispersal and occasionally an agent of selection.Le sorgho, famille des graminees et tribu d'andropogoneae, a evolue et s'est rependu progressivement d'abord dans les limites du continent africain. En plus de quatre forces majeures de l'evolution dont la selection, la mutation, la derive genetique due au fait du hasard, et la migration, il y a l'apparition de representants de forme sauvage des sous-especes de S. bicolor telles les verticilliflorum qui sont encore presents aujourd'hui. Malgre la presence de l'etre humain il y a deux millions d'annees, son role dans l'evolution du sorgho etait probablement limite a celui de l'agent physique de dispersion et occasionnellement a celui de l'agent de selection.
 Dispersal of Sorghum and the Role of Genetic Drift
作者  Dahlberg, J.
作者单位  
期刊  African Crop Science Journal 卷期  Vol. 3, No. 2, 1995 时间  2010.08.11
关键词  Evolution, dispersion, Sorghum bicolorEvolution, spread, Sorghum bicolor
摘要   Le sorgho, famille des graminees et tribu d'andropogoneae, a evolue et s'est rependu progressivement d'abord dans les limites du continent africain. En plus de quatre forces majeures de l'evolution dont la selection, la mutation, la derive genetique due au fait du hasard, et la migration, il y a l'apparition de representants de forme sauvage des sous-especes de S. bicolor telles les verticilliflorum qui sont encore presents aujourd'hui. Malgre la presence de l'etre humain il y a deux millions d'annees, son role dans l'evolution du sorgho etait probablement limite a celui de l'agent physique de dispersion et occasionnellement a celui de l'agent de selection.Sorghum, family Graminae, and tribe Andropogoneae, evolved and slowly spread primarily within the confines of the African subcontinent. From the four major forces of evolution, selection, mutation, random genetic drift and migration, arose the wild representatives of S. bicolor subspecies verticilliflorum that are still present today. Though humans appeared on the scene about 2 millions years ago, their role in the evolution of sorghum was probably limited to that of a physical agent of dispersal and occasionally an agent of selection.
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