Economics Management Science
关键词: 检索项: 二级学科:
 
排列规则 出版时间倒序 出版时间顺序 引用次数 期刊影响因子
 
 BIOTECHNOLOGY ISSUES FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES - Biotechnology in Developing Countries: Harnessing th
作者  Bustamante, Pedro I. & Bowra, Steve
作者单位  
期刊  Electronic Journal of Biotechnology 卷期  Vol. 5, No. 3, 2002 时间  
关键词  
摘要   In the global market, the emergence of new technologies are representing opportunities and challenges to both industry and the public sector of the Latin American Countries (LAC). Some of these technologies have far reaching implications for a large number of industrial sectors, creating wealth and employment, resulting in an increased competitiveness of the developed economies around the world. Modern biotechnology is one of these key emerging technologies which LAC must harness successfully to sustain economic growth and competitiveness. The ability to commercially exploit research in this area is also of prime importance. Developed countries have made important progress in recent years, with a strong leadership of USA in this sector. Unless substantial steps are taken now by LAC the gap between developed and developing economies will only continue to widen in the short, medium and long term. In this, the role of Small and Medium size Enterprises (SMES) is of crucial importance, especially because "High-TECH SMES" firms, by their nature, are often start-ups where new products are developed. Therefore, it is up to public authorities and venture-capitalists, at both the national and regional level to help engender a more productive external business. This paper is aimed to provide an overview of the options to harness the potential of "High-TECH SMES" for generating and accessing to new technologies, both at the national and global levels, with particular emphasis on biotechnology sectors in order to improve the LAC competitiveness.
 Fertility Transition in Sub-Saharan Africa: Falling and Stalling
作者  Shapiro, David & Gebreselassie, Tesfayi
作者单位  
期刊  African Population Studies 卷期  Vol. 23, No. 1, 2008 时间  
关键词  fertility, stalling, education, infant/child mortality
摘要   Cet article utilise les données issues des Enquêtes Démographiques et de Santé afin d'examiner l'état actuel de la transition de la fécondité en Afrique sub-saharienne, y compris le ralentissement ou l'interruption du processus de transition. Parmi les 24 pays couverts par au moins deux enquêtes, la baisse de la fécondité s'est amorcée dans 22 pays, mais ce processus s'est ensuite arrêtée dans un-tiers de ces pays. Nous étudions les liens entre les changements dans l'utilisation de la contraception moderne, les préférences en matière de fécondité, et le développement socio-économique (mesuré par l'accroissement de la scolarisation des femmes, la baisse de la mortalité infantile et juvénile, et la croissance du PNB brut réel par habitant) d'une part, et la baisse et la stabilisation de la fécondité, de l'autre part. Les résultats indiquent un lien entre chacun de ces indicateurs du développement socio-économique et la probabilité de voir une transition interrompue. Nous analysons également les déterminants des taux de fécondité par âge dans les milieux urbain et rural, et nous essayons d'évaluer les perspectives d'avenir de la baisse de la fécondité dans la région. L'augmentation de la scolarisation des femmes et la réduction de la mortalité infantile et juvénile apparaissent comme facteurs clefs pour une baisse soutenue de la fécondité.This paper uses data from the Demographic and Health Surveys to examine the current status of fertility transition in sub-Saharan Africa, including the extent to which fertility decline has stalled. Among the two dozen countries covered by multiple surveys, 22 have initiated fertility transition, and a third of these countries have experienced stalling of fertility decline. We study the links between changes in contraceptive use, fertility preferences, and socioeconomic development (as reflected in changes in women's education, infant and child mortality, and real per-capita economic growth) and fertility decline and stalling. Changes in the measures of socioeconomic development are all related to the likelihood of stalling. We also analyze determinants of age-specific fertility rates in urban and rural places, and assess future prospects for fertility decline in the region. Progress in increasing women's educational attainment and in reducing infant and child mortality are identified as key factors contributing to sustained fertility decline..
 Fertility Transition in Sub-Saharan Africa: Falling and Stalling
作者  Shapiro, David & Gebreselassie, Tesfayi
作者单位  
期刊  African Population Studies 卷期  Vol. 23, No. 1, 2008 时间  
关键词  fertility, stalling, education, infant/child mortality
摘要   This paper uses data from the Demographic and Health Surveys to examine the current status of fertility transition in sub-Saharan Africa, including the extent to which fertility decline has stalled. Among the two dozen countries covered by multiple surveys, 22 have initiated fertility transition, and a third of these countries have experienced stalling of fertility decline. We study the links between changes in contraceptive use, fertility preferences, and socioeconomic development (as reflected in changes in women's education, infant and child mortality, and real per-capita economic growth) and fertility decline and stalling. Changes in the measures of socioeconomic development are all related to the likelihood of stalling. We also analyze determinants of age-specific fertility rates in urban and rural places, and assess future prospects for fertility decline in the region. Progress in increasing women's educational attainment and in reducing infant and child mortality are identified as key factors contributing to sustained fertility decline..Cet article utilise les données issues des Enquêtes Démographiques et de Santé afin d'examiner l'état actuel de la transition de la fécondité en Afrique sub-saharienne, y compris le ralentissement ou l'interruption du processus de transition. Parmi les 24 pays couverts par au moins deux enquêtes, la baisse de la fécondité s'est amorcée dans 22 pays, mais ce processus s'est ensuite arrêtée dans un-tiers de ces pays. Nous étudions les liens entre les changements dans l'utilisation de la contraception moderne, les préférences en matière de fécondité, et le développement socio-économique (mesuré par l'accroissement de la scolarisation des femmes, la baisse de la mortalité infantile et juvénile, et la croissance du PNB brut réel par habitant) d'une part, et la baisse et la stabilisation de la fécondité, de l'autre part. Les résultats indiquent un lien entre chacun de ces indicateurs du développement socio-économique et la probabilité de voir une transition interrompue. Nous analysons également les déterminants des taux de fécondité par âge dans les milieux urbain et rural, et nous essayons d'évaluer les perspectives d'avenir de la baisse de la fécondité dans la région. L'augmentation de la scolarisation des femmes et la réduction de la mortalité infantile et juvénile apparaissent comme facteurs clefs pour une baisse soutenue de la fécondité.
 ISSUES IN BIOTECHNOLOGY TEACHING - A nationwide biotechnology outreach and awareness program for Mal
作者  Firdaus-Raih, Mohd.;Senafi, Sahidan;Murad, Abdul Munir;Sidik, Nik Marzuki;Lian, Wan Kiew;Daud, Fauzi;Ariffin, Shahrul Hisham Zainal;Zamrod, Zulkeflie;Seng, Tan Chon;Othman, Ahmad Sofiman;Harmin, Sharr Azni;Saad, Mohd Yusof Radzuan & Mohamed, Rahmah
作者单位  
期刊  Electronic Journal of Biotechnology 卷期  Vol. 8, No. 1, 2005 时间  
关键词  Biotechnology awareness, biotechnology education, capacity building.
摘要   Biotechnology education in developing nations remains one of the rate limiting factors in achieving optimal human resource capacity to drive and tap the bio-resources of these nations. Many developing countries are situated within rich bio-diversity enclaves. Biotechnology offers the promise of tapping these bio resources towards due process of developing these nations. While there may be a steady stream of biology and biotechnology based graduates, from Malaysian as well as foreign universities contributing to the human resource base for these countries, the numbers and knowledge diversity produced, still lack the capacity to optimally power research and development as well as supply the industrial biotechnology sectors of these countries. Realizing the need to address these issues at the grassroots level of higher education, Malaysia has taken an active step of bringing biotechnology into the classrooms of high schools throughout the country. These future generations of Malaysians, are hoped to progress towards manning and driving Malaysia's BioValley initiatives (a biotech based R&D and industry cluster), towards the national dream of developed nation status by the year 2020, using biotechnology as an economic growth vehicle. Here, we share our experiences in developing and proliferating a biotechnology awareness program for Malaysian high schools. It is hoped that similar programs will strive towards similar objectives in other developing countries.
 Inequity, poverty and health
作者  Armando Cortés
作者单位  
期刊  Revista Colombia Médica 卷期  Vol. 37, No. 3, 2006 时间  
关键词  Salud; Pobreza; Inequidad; Desarrollo humano.Poverty; Health; Inequity; Human development.
摘要   Una de las mayores barreras para reducir la pobreza es la inequidad distributiva de la riqueza. La sociedad colombiana es pobre, presenta una distribución desigual del ingreso y crece poco. Catorce millones de colombianos sobreviven con menos de dos dólares diarios. En total, 64 de cada 100 colombianos están en el «umbral» de pobreza. Si Colombia quiere tener prosperidad y justicia social, requiere atender la equidad entre sus zonas rurales y urbanas, entre sus regiones, entre grupos étnicos y entre hombres y mujeres en aspectos como el acceso a la educación, la propiedad de la tierra y la distribución del ingreso. El crecimiento económico requiere no sólo individuos sanos, sino también educación y otras inversiones complementarias, una adecuada división del trabajo entre los sectores públicos y privados, un buen funcionamiento de los mercados, una gestión pública adecuada y acuerdos institucionales que impulsen los avances tecnológicos. Nuevos estudios sugieren que el estrés de ser pobre tiene una peligrosa influencia en la salud. Las personas de estrato socio-económico bajo tienen dramáticamente más riesgo de enfermar y expectativa de vida más corta. Hay una fuerte asociación entre inequidad en los ingresos, pobre salud y bajo capital social. Un alto grado de inequidad en los ingresos lleva a un bajo nivel de confianza y soporte, lo cual incrementa el estrés y peligros para la salud. Existe una inmensa responsabilidad de los países ricos en el cumplimiento de las metas de reducción de la pobreza y mejora de las condiciones de vida en el mundo. La mayoría de las muertes son evitables y hay que abordar las causas estructurales de la pobreza y la desigualdad. Hay capacidad y recursos suficientes en el mundo para erradicar el hambre y la pobreza y promover el desarrollo económico sustentable con justicia social.One of the biggest barriers to reduce the poverty is the distributive inequity of the wealth. The Colombian society is poor, it presents an unequal distribution of the entrance and it grows a little. Fourteen million Colombians survive with less than two daily dollars. In total, 64 of each 100 Colombians are in the «threshold» of poverty. If Colombia wants to have prosperity and social justice, is requires to assist the justness among its rural and urban areas, among its regions, among ethnic groups and between men and women in aspects like the access to the education, the property of the earth and the distribution of income. The economic growth not only requires healthy individuals, but also education and other complementary investments, an appropriate division of the work among the public sectors and private, a good operation of the markets, an appropriate public administration and institutional agreements that impel the technological advances. New studies suggest that the stress of being poor has a dangerous influence in the health. People of socioeconomic stratum low they have dramatically more risk of making sick and expectation of shorter life. There is a strong association among inequity in the revenues, poor health and low capital stock. A high inequity grade in the revenues takes to a confidential low-level and support, that which increases the stress and dangers for the health. An immense responsibility of the rich countries exists in the execution of the goals of reduction of the poverty and improvement of the conditions of life in the world. Most of the deaths are avoidable and it is necessary to approach the structural causes of the poverty and the inequality. There are capacity and enough resources in the world to eradicate the hunger and the poverty and to promote the sustainable economic development with social justice.
 Inequity, poverty and health
作者  Armando Cortés
作者单位  
期刊  Revista Colombia Médica 卷期  Vol. 37, No. 3, 2006 时间  
关键词  Poverty; Health; Inequity; Human development.Salud; Pobreza; Inequidad; Desarrollo humano.
摘要   One of the biggest barriers to reduce the poverty is the distributive inequity of the wealth. The Colombian society is poor, it presents an unequal distribution of the entrance and it grows a little. Fourteen million Colombians survive with less than two daily dollars. In total, 64 of each 100 Colombians are in the «threshold» of poverty. If Colombia wants to have prosperity and social justice, is requires to assist the justness among its rural and urban areas, among its regions, among ethnic groups and between men and women in aspects like the access to the education, the property of the earth and the distribution of income. The economic growth not only requires healthy individuals, but also education and other complementary investments, an appropriate division of the work among the public sectors and private, a good operation of the markets, an appropriate public administration and institutional agreements that impel the technological advances. New studies suggest that the stress of being poor has a dangerous influence in the health. People of socioeconomic stratum low they have dramatically more risk of making sick and expectation of shorter life. There is a strong association among inequity in the revenues, poor health and low capital stock. A high inequity grade in the revenues takes to a confidential low-level and support, that which increases the stress and dangers for the health. An immense responsibility of the rich countries exists in the execution of the goals of reduction of the poverty and improvement of the conditions of life in the world. Most of the deaths are avoidable and it is necessary to approach the structural causes of the poverty and the inequality. There are capacity and enough resources in the world to eradicate the hunger and the poverty and to promote the sustainable economic development with social justice.Una de las mayores barreras para reducir la pobreza es la inequidad distributiva de la riqueza. La sociedad colombiana es pobre, presenta una distribución desigual del ingreso y crece poco. Catorce millones de colombianos sobreviven con menos de dos dólares diarios. En total, 64 de cada 100 colombianos están en el «umbral» de pobreza. Si Colombia quiere tener prosperidad y justicia social, requiere atender la equidad entre sus zonas rurales y urbanas, entre sus regiones, entre grupos étnicos y entre hombres y mujeres en aspectos como el acceso a la educación, la propiedad de la tierra y la distribución del ingreso. El crecimiento económico requiere no sólo individuos sanos, sino también educación y otras inversiones complementarias, una adecuada división del trabajo entre los sectores públicos y privados, un buen funcionamiento de los mercados, una gestión pública adecuada y acuerdos institucionales que impulsen los avances tecnológicos. Nuevos estudios sugieren que el estrés de ser pobre tiene una peligrosa influencia en la salud. Las personas de estrato socio-económico bajo tienen dramáticamente más riesgo de enfermar y expectativa de vida más corta. Hay una fuerte asociación entre inequidad en los ingresos, pobre salud y bajo capital social. Un alto grado de inequidad en los ingresos lleva a un bajo nivel de confianza y soporte, lo cual incrementa el estrés y peligros para la salud. Existe una inmensa responsabilidad de los países ricos en el cumplimiento de las metas de reducción de la pobreza y mejora de las condiciones de vida en el mundo. La mayoría de las muertes son evitables y hay que abordar las causas estructurales de la pobreza y la desigualdad. Hay capacidad y recursos suficientes en el mundo para erradicar el hambre y la pobreza y promover el desarrollo económico sustentable con justicia social.
 Strategic approaches to informing the public about biotechnology in Latin America
作者  Traynor, Patricia L.;Adonis, Marta & Gil, Lionel
作者单位  
期刊  Electronic Journal of Biotechnology 卷期  Vol. 10, No. 2, 2007 时间  
关键词  biotechnology, GMOs, public perception.
摘要   The benefits of today's biotechnology products are not evident to consumers. The public will accept biotechnology only when individuals decide for themselves that biotec products will contribute to their personal well-being. To make such a decision, people will need greater awareness and understanding of how biotechnology will affect the environment, human health, local and national economies, and the well-being of society. A low level of awareness and understanding about biotechnology is characteristic of Latin America and the Caribbean countries, as elsewhere, efforts to remedy poor public perception often seem inadequate and do not reflect a well-designed strategy. In order to improve the understanding of the biotechnology and their human applications, a strategic plan for public communications is required. Specific objectives for this initiative may include: (1) to make evident to decision makers that modern biotechnology can be an effective tool for increasing agricultural productivity, and thereby economic growth, without imposing unacceptable risk to the environment or human and animal health; (2) to enable members of the public to make informed decisions about appropriate uses of biotechnology by providing accurate information about benefits, risks and impacts; or (3) to incorporate modern biotechnology into science curricula for secondary schools, university and college students, and agriculture extension officers. A variety of specialized expertise, including communication specialists, technical writers, graphic artists and illustrators to design information materials and conduct training is needed to implement this. Ideally, members bring expertise in biotechnology and biosafety, public communications and project management. The plan will need to identify scientists and technical experts who can provide expertise in science writing for general audiences, advertising, graphic arts, public opinion polling and media communications. These people can provide basic information about the techniques of modern biotechnology; the products now available and those being developed; what is known about the nature, probability and consequences of potential risks. Governments, industry, universities and media must play an important role to improve public perception about biotechnology, this is a requirement to develop biotechnology in the Region.
 Review Paper- Renewable energy in Iran: Challenges and opportunities for sustainable development
作者  F. Atabi
作者单位  
期刊  International Journal of Environment Science and Technology 卷期  Vol. 1, No. 1, 2004 时间  
关键词  Sustainable development, RET, energy system, international collaboration, CDM
摘要   Around the globe, developing countries have reported different cases of successfully implemented Renewable Energy (RE) program supported by bilateral or multilateral funding. In developing countries subsidy has played a big role in RE program marketing and whether this will lead to sustainable development is yet to be determined. The adoption of implementation strategies that will support sustainable development and overcoming barriers that hinder expansion of Renewable Energy Technologies (RETs) still remains as a big challenge to stakeholders involved in promotion of RE resources in developing countries. In this respect, developing countries need to re-examine their environmental policy for promotion of RETs in order to define its role in revitalization of their economies. This paper reviews the policy incentives for promotion of RETs in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Setting-up international collaborative business ventures between local industry in Iran and RE companies in developed countries is proposed as an implementation strategy that will appropriate diffusion of RETs in the country. An organizational framework that may help to attain this objective is discussed and a structural model for RE business partnership is presented. It is concluded that with appropriate policy formulations and strategies, RETs can bring about the required socio-economic development in Iran.
 Review Paper- Renewable energy in Iran: Challenges and opportunities for sustainable development
作者  F. Atabi
作者单位  
期刊  International Journal of Environment Science and Technology 卷期  Vol. 1, No. 1, 2004 时间  
关键词  Sustainable development, RET, energy system, international collaboration, CDM
摘要   Around the globe, developing countries have reported different cases of successfully implemented Renewable Energy (RE) program supported by bilateral or multilateral funding. In developing countries subsidy has played a big role in RE program marketing and whether this will lead to sustainable development is yet to be determined. The adoption of implementation strategies that will support sustainable development and overcoming barriers that hinder expansion of Renewable Energy Technologies (RETs) still remains as a big challenge to stakeholders involved in promotion of RE resources in developing countries. In this respect, developing countries need to re-examine their environmental policy for promotion of RETs in order to define its role in revitalization of their economies. This paper reviews the policy incentives for promotion of RETs in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Setting-up international collaborative business ventures between local industry in Iran and RE companies in developed countries is proposed as an implementation strategy that will appropriate diffusion of RETs in the country. An organizational framework that may help to attain this objective is discussed and a structural model for RE business partnership is presented. It is concluded that with appropriate policy formulations and strategies, RETs can bring about the required socio-economic development in Iran.
 Review Paper- Renewable energy in Iran: Challenges and opportunities for sustainable development
作者  F. Atabi
作者单位  
期刊  International Journal of Environment Science and Technology 卷期  Vol. 1, No. 1, 2004 时间  
关键词  Sustainable development, RET, energy system, international collaboration, CDM
摘要   Around the globe, developing countries have reported different cases of successfully implemented Renewable Energy (RE) program supported by bilateral or multilateral funding. In developing countries subsidy has played a big role in RE program marketing and whether this will lead to sustainable development is yet to be determined. The adoption of implementation strategies that will support sustainable development and overcoming barriers that hinder expansion of Renewable Energy Technologies (RETs) still remains as a big challenge to stakeholders involved in promotion of RE resources in developing countries. In this respect, developing countries need to re-examine their environmental policy for promotion of RETs in order to define its role in revitalization of their economies. This paper reviews the policy incentives for promotion of RETs in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Setting-up international collaborative business ventures between local industry in Iran and RE companies in developed countries is proposed as an implementation strategy that will appropriate diffusion of RETs in the country. An organizational framework that may help to attain this objective is discussed and a structural model for RE business partnership is presented. It is concluded that with appropriate policy formulations and strategies, RETs can bring about the required socio-economic development in Iran.
当前页数:1/总页数:252|首页上一页   下一页 尾页
OPEN ACCESS搜索平台-中国科技论文在线
中国科技论文在线 版权所有
在线首页 | 在线简介 | 服务条款 | 联系我们 | 京ICP备05083805号 | 文保网安备案号:1101080066
主管:中华人民共和国教育部 主办:教育部科技发展中心 技术支持:赛尔网络有限公司