Economics Management Science
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 Marketing and commercialization channels of sheep meat products (Ovis aries ) in Lara state, Vene
作者  D'Aubeterre, Ramón;Delgado, Aleyda;Armas, Wilmer J. & Rueda, Mónica
作者单位  
期刊  Zootecnia Tropical 卷期  Vol. 25, No. 3, 2007 时间  2010.04.20
关键词  Ovinos, canales de mercadeo, comercialización, precios, productores.Marketing channels, commercialization, prices, ovine, farmers.
摘要   En este artículo se presentan los diferentes canales de comercialización de la carne ovina del estado Lara. La información es producto de doce años de seguimiento e información sistematizada recabada entre productores, intermediarios, detallistas y consumidores del estado Lara. Se aplicaron encuestas y entrevistas a los diferentes actores relacionados con la comercialización de la carne ovina y se analizó el comportamiento de los precios a diferentes instancias de la cadena de mercadeo, a través del Método de Ajuste por Nivel General de Precios del Banco Central de Venezuela. Según los resultados, los principales canales detectados para la venta de la carne ovina fueron: 1) productor-consumidor, 2) productor-carnicerías/supermercado-consumidor, 3) productor-acopiador-transportista-detallista-consumidor y 4) productor-acopiador transportista-sala de matanza y/o matadero-carnicería/ supermercado-restaurantes-consumidor. También se determinó que los precios del kilo de animal a puerta de corral y a nivel de consumidor expresados nominalmente se incrementaron durante el periodo 1989-2006, mientras que la reexpresión a precios constantes indica una disminución de los mismos.The main objective of this paper is to identify the different channels of commercialization of the sheep meat product in Lara state, Venezuela. Twelve years of systematic information is presented. This information was taken among sheep farmers, intermediaries, industrials, retailers, consumers, and government agencies. Surveys were applied to the different actors related to the commercialization and marketing of the sheep products. Prices were analyzed at different levels of markets by using the Method of Adjustment of General Prices of the Central Bank of Venezuela. The main detected channels of commercialization for the sheep meat were: 1) Sheep producers-consumers, 2) Sheep producers-intermediaries (carriers)-retailers-consumers, 3) Sheep producers-intermediaries-slaughterhouse-retailers-consumers, and 4) Sheep producers-intermediaries (carriers)-slaughterhouse-butcheries/supermarkets-restaurants-consumers. Also, prices per kilogram of the animals at the farm and for the consumers were determined nominally and both increased during 1989-2006 period, while the reexpression at constant prices showed a decrease during the same period.
 An Empirical Investigation of Attitudes towards Wife-Beating among Men and Women in Seven Sub-Sahara
作者  Manju Rani, Sekhar Bonu and Nafissatou Diop-Sidibé
作者单位  
期刊  African Journal of Reproductive Health 卷期  Vol. 8, No. 3, 2004 时间  2010.04.14
关键词  Wife-beating, Benin, Mali, Rwanda, Malawi, Uganda, Zimbabwe, sub-Saharan Africa, attitudes, conceptual framework
摘要   This study used data from the demographic and health surveys (DHS) conducted between 1999 and 2001 in Benin, Ethiopia, Malawi, Mali, Rwanda, Uganda and Zimbabwe, to examine the magnitude and correlates of conditional acceptance of wife-beating among both men and women. Multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to investigate the independent association between different socio-demographic characteristics and acceptance of wife-beating. The acceptance of wife-beating for transgressing certain gender roles was widespread in all the countries. Men were consistently less likely to justify wife-beating than women. Household wealth and education emerged as strongest and most consistent negative predictors of acceptance of wife-beating among both men and women. Older men and women were less likely to justify wife-beating. Men and women in the polygamous union were more likely to accept wife-beating, though the association was not always significant. With the exception of Uganda, women working for pay were more likely to justify wife-beating than non-working women were. The results indicate that dominant social and cultural norms create images of "ideal" women among both men and women that include definition and widespread acceptance of gender roles as well as sanction use of force to enforce these gender roles. The State and its different institutions may fail to mitigate wife-beating, as sensitivity to objectively address wife-beating may be tellingly lacking. Though education, economic growth, etc, can reduce acceptance of wife-beating, the process may be too slow and too late to make a substantial difference in the near future. Proactive measures may be required to change attitudes towards wife-beating among both men and women. (Afr J Reprod Health 2004; 8[3]:116-136)Etude empirique des attitudes envers la violence faite à la femme chez les hommes et les femmes dans sept pays africains sub-sahariens.Cette étude se sert des données tirées des enquêtes démographique et de santé (EDS) menées entre 1999 et 2001 à Benin City, en Ethiopie, au Malawi, au Rwanda, en Ouganda et au Zimbabwe afin d'examiner l'ampleur et les corrélats de l'acceptation de violence contre la femme aussi bien parmi les hommes que parmi les femmes. Des modèles de la régression logistique multifactoriels ont été établis pour vérifier l'association indépendante entre les caractéristiques démographiques différentes et l'acceptation de la violence contre la femme. L'acceptation de la violence contre la femme pour avoir transgressé certains rôles basés sur les rôles de genre était bien répandue dans les pays. Les hommes avaient régulièrement moins la possibilité de justifier l'agression contre la femme que les femmes. La richesse domestique et l'éducation comptaient parmi les indices négatifs les plus réguliers de l'acceptation de la violence chez les hommes et les femmes. Les hommes et les femmes plus âgés ont plus la possibilité de justifier la violence contre la femme. Les hommes et les femmes dans l'union polygame avaient plus la possibilité d'accepter la violence domestique contre la femme, quoique l'association n'ait pas toujours été remarquable. A part l'Ouganda, Les femmes qui travaillent pour être payées avaient plus la possibilité de justifier la violence contre la femme que celles qui ne travaillent pas. Les résultats ont montré que les normes sociales et culturelles dominantes créent les images des femmes « idéales » chez les hommes et les femmes qui comprennent la définition et l'acceptation très répandue des rôles des femmes et des hommes aussi bien que l'emploi sanctionné de la force pour faire respecter ces rôles. L'Etat et ses diverses institutions manqueront peut-être de réduire la violence contre la femme comme il manquera vraiment la sensibilité d'aborder de manière objective le problème de la violence contre la femme. A travers l'éducation, la croissance économique, l'on peut réduire l'incidence de la violence domestique contre la femme. Le procès sera peut-être lent et trop tard pour faire une différence remarquable dans l'avenir. Il faudra peut-être des dispositifs positifs pour changer des attitudes envers la violence domestique contre la femme chez les hommes et les femmes. (Rev Afr Santé Reprod 2004; 8[3]:116-136)
 Genotypic Variation in Fruit Ripening Time and Weight Reduction Among a Selection of New Musa Hybrid
作者  Adeniji, Tajudeen Adebayo & Barimalaa, Iminabo Samuel
作者单位  
期刊  Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management 卷期  Vol. 12, No. 1, 2008 时间  2010.04.12
关键词  
摘要   Thirty different genotypes of plantain and banana hybrids were evaluated for fruit ripening time to provide information on their shelf life, processing, adoption, and marketing potentials. Fruit of many of the plantain and banana hybrids had a significantly longer shelf life (p<0.05) than that of the plantain landraces. Shelf life from green to the attainment of full ripening (16.3 days) was observed in 23688-2, which differed significantly (P<0.05) from all other cultivars investigated. The mean numbers of days before complete ripening in 23977-7, SH 3362 and 25333-S88 were 15.6 days, 13.8 days and 13.4 days, respectively. These clones differed significantly (p<0.05) from the two plantain landraces used in this study. Obino l’Ewai kept for 8.5 days before the attainment of full ripening. Agbagba and 25291-S32 recorded the shortest ripening times of 5.5 and 5.4 days, respectively to attain full ripening stage. Similarly, most of the plantain and banana hybrids differ significantly from the landraces in shelf life prior to senescence (stage 10). Significant difference (P<0.05) was also observed in most of the hybrids compared to plantain landraces in their keeping qualities before senescence. Specifically, hybrids 23977-7 and SH 3362 kept for 25.9 days to stage 10. Fruits of FHIA 3 showed the shortest storage life (13.3days) before senescence. The weight of 25344-18 fruit reduced from 189.6g to 104.5g during ripening from stage 1 to stage 10. The same trend in fruit weight reduction during ripening was observed for all other cultivar, irrespective of their ploidy status.
 Genotypic Variation in Fruit Ripening Time and Weight Reduction Among a Selection of New Musa Hybrid
作者  Adeniji, Tajudeen Adebayo & Barimalaa, Iminabo Samuel
作者单位  
期刊  Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management 卷期  Vol. 12, No. 1, 2008 时间  2010.04.12
关键词  
摘要   Thirty different genotypes of plantain and banana hybrids were evaluated for fruit ripening time to provide information on their shelf life, processing, adoption, and marketing potentials. Fruit of many of the plantain and banana hybrids had a significantly longer shelf life (p<0.05) than that of the plantain landraces. Shelf life from green to the attainment of full ripening (16.3 days) was observed in 23688-2, which differed significantly (P<0.05) from all other cultivars investigated. The mean numbers of days before complete ripening in 23977-7, SH 3362 and 25333-S88 were 15.6 days, 13.8 days and 13.4 days, respectively. These clones differed significantly (p<0.05) from the two plantain landraces used in this study. Obino l’Ewai kept for 8.5 days before the attainment of full ripening. Agbagba and 25291-S32 recorded the shortest ripening times of 5.5 and 5.4 days, respectively to attain full ripening stage. Similarly, most of the plantain and banana hybrids differ significantly from the landraces in shelf life prior to senescence (stage 10). Significant difference (P<0.05) was also observed in most of the hybrids compared to plantain landraces in their keeping qualities before senescence. Specifically, hybrids 23977-7 and SH 3362 kept for 25.9 days to stage 10. Fruits of FHIA 3 showed the shortest storage life (13.3days) before senescence. The weight of 25344-18 fruit reduced from 189.6g to 104.5g during ripening from stage 1 to stage 10. The same trend in fruit weight reduction during ripening was observed for all other cultivar, irrespective of their ploidy status.
 Genotypic Variation in Fruit Ripening Time and Weight Reduction Among a Selection of New Musa Hybrid
作者  Adeniji, Tajudeen Adebayo & Barimalaa, Iminabo Samuel
作者单位  
期刊  Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management 卷期  Vol. 12, No. 1, 2008 时间  2010.04.12
关键词  
摘要   Thirty different genotypes of plantain and banana hybrids were evaluated for fruit ripening time to provide information on their shelf life, processing, adoption, and marketing potentials. Fruit of many of the plantain and banana hybrids had a significantly longer shelf life (p<0.05) than that of the plantain landraces. Shelf life from green to the attainment of full ripening (16.3 days) was observed in 23688-2, which differed significantly (P<0.05) from all other cultivars investigated. The mean numbers of days before complete ripening in 23977-7, SH 3362 and 25333-S88 were 15.6 days, 13.8 days and 13.4 days, respectively. These clones differed significantly (p<0.05) from the two plantain landraces used in this study. Obino l’Ewai kept for 8.5 days before the attainment of full ripening. Agbagba and 25291-S32 recorded the shortest ripening times of 5.5 and 5.4 days, respectively to attain full ripening stage. Similarly, most of the plantain and banana hybrids differ significantly from the landraces in shelf life prior to senescence (stage 10). Significant difference (P<0.05) was also observed in most of the hybrids compared to plantain landraces in their keeping qualities before senescence. Specifically, hybrids 23977-7 and SH 3362 kept for 25.9 days to stage 10. Fruits of FHIA 3 showed the shortest storage life (13.3days) before senescence. The weight of 25344-18 fruit reduced from 189.6g to 104.5g during ripening from stage 1 to stage 10. The same trend in fruit weight reduction during ripening was observed for all other cultivar, irrespective of their ploidy status.
 Pharmacists as Entrepreneurs or Employees: The Role of Locus of Control
作者  Inegbenebor, A.U.
作者单位  
期刊  Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 卷期  Vol. 6, No. 3, 2007 时间  2010.04.12
关键词  Locus of Control; Entrepreneur Pharmacist; Entrepreneur Education; Employee Pharmacist, Nigeria.
摘要   Purpose:To investigate whether locus of control distinguished between pharmacists who chose to become entrepreneurs and those who took up employee roles in pharmaceutical establishments. Methods:The enlarged version of Rotter's I-E scale designed to measure an individual's locus of control was used to survey a sample of pharmacists in two major cities in Southern Nigeria. The sample consisted of 34 pharmacists who were owners/proprietors of retail pharmacies and 35 pharmacists employed in retail pharmacies or hospitals. The difference between entrepreneur pharmacists and employee pharmacists in terms of locus of control was analysed using student's t-test. Results:The mean locus of control score for entrepreneur pharmacists was significantly different from that of employee pharmacists (p < 0.01). Entrepreneur pharmacists had higher scores on the variable than employee pharmacists indicating greater locus of control internality. Conclusion:Pharmacists characterized by locus of control internality are more likely to assume entrepreneurial rather than employee roles in pharmaceutical undertakings. Such pharmacists are more disposed to adopt innovative pharmaceutical care philosophy. Hence there is need to incorporate entrepreneurial education in the curriculum of pharmacy programmes to encourage positive attitude toward entrepreneurship.
 Pharmacists as Entrepreneurs or Employees: The Role of Locus of Control
作者  Inegbenebor, A.U.
作者单位  
期刊  Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 卷期  Vol. 6, No. 3, 2007 时间  2010.04.12
关键词  Locus of Control; Entrepreneur Pharmacist; Entrepreneur Education; Employee Pharmacist, Nigeria.
摘要   Purpose:To investigate whether locus of control distinguished between pharmacists who chose to become entrepreneurs and those who took up employee roles in pharmaceutical establishments. Methods:The enlarged version of Rotter's I-E scale designed to measure an individual's locus of control was used to survey a sample of pharmacists in two major cities in Southern Nigeria. The sample consisted of 34 pharmacists who were owners/proprietors of retail pharmacies and 35 pharmacists employed in retail pharmacies or hospitals. The difference between entrepreneur pharmacists and employee pharmacists in terms of locus of control was analysed using student's t-test. Results:The mean locus of control score for entrepreneur pharmacists was significantly different from that of employee pharmacists (p < 0.01). Entrepreneur pharmacists had higher scores on the variable than employee pharmacists indicating greater locus of control internality. Conclusion:Pharmacists characterized by locus of control internality are more likely to assume entrepreneurial rather than employee roles in pharmaceutical undertakings. Such pharmacists are more disposed to adopt innovative pharmaceutical care philosophy. Hence there is need to incorporate entrepreneurial education in the curriculum of pharmacy programmes to encourage positive attitude toward entrepreneurship.
 Pharmacists as Entrepreneurs or Employees: The Role of Locus of Control
作者  Inegbenebor, A.U.
作者单位  
期刊  Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 卷期  Vol. 6, No. 3, 2007 时间  2010.04.12
关键词  Locus of Control; Entrepreneur Pharmacist; Entrepreneur Education; Employee Pharmacist, Nigeria.
摘要   Purpose:To investigate whether locus of control distinguished between pharmacists who chose to become entrepreneurs and those who took up employee roles in pharmaceutical establishments. Methods:The enlarged version of Rotter's I-E scale designed to measure an individual's locus of control was used to survey a sample of pharmacists in two major cities in Southern Nigeria. The sample consisted of 34 pharmacists who were owners/proprietors of retail pharmacies and 35 pharmacists employed in retail pharmacies or hospitals. The difference between entrepreneur pharmacists and employee pharmacists in terms of locus of control was analysed using student's t-test. Results:The mean locus of control score for entrepreneur pharmacists was significantly different from that of employee pharmacists (p < 0.01). Entrepreneur pharmacists had higher scores on the variable than employee pharmacists indicating greater locus of control internality. Conclusion:Pharmacists characterized by locus of control internality are more likely to assume entrepreneurial rather than employee roles in pharmaceutical undertakings. Such pharmacists are more disposed to adopt innovative pharmaceutical care philosophy. Hence there is need to incorporate entrepreneurial education in the curriculum of pharmacy programmes to encourage positive attitude toward entrepreneurship.
 Letter to editor - Smoking behavior and initiation of smoking among adolescent - A threat to public
作者  Urban J.A.D'Souza
作者单位  
期刊  Indian Journal of Medical Sciences 卷期  Vol. 57, No. 10, 2003 时间  2010.04.08
关键词  
摘要   Initiation of smoking and behavior among school and college students is a major concern to the society. A recent article on smoking behavior among college students in India has indicated that information on tobacco related health hazards, anti-smoking campaigns and a change in attitude towards smoking are the major ingredients for effective control of smoking.1Tobacco marketing, advertisements in association with celebrities, like film stars and sports personalities, have increased the chances of smoking among the adolescents. Similarly, exposure of this group to movies in which smoking is associated with toughness, sexiness and rebelliousness2influence the behavior of these adolescents.
 Letter to editor - Smoking behavior and initiation of smoking among adolescent - A threat to public
作者  Urban J.A.D'Souza
作者单位  
期刊  Indian Journal of Medical Sciences 卷期  Vol. 57, No. 10, 2003 时间  2010.04.08
关键词  
摘要   Initiation of smoking and behavior among school and college students is a major concern to the society. A recent article on smoking behavior among college students in India has indicated that information on tobacco related health hazards, anti-smoking campaigns and a change in attitude towards smoking are the major ingredients for effective control of smoking.1Tobacco marketing, advertisements in association with celebrities, like film stars and sports personalities, have increased the chances of smoking among the adolescents. Similarly, exposure of this group to movies in which smoking is associated with toughness, sexiness and rebelliousness2influence the behavior of these adolescents.
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